Women are more cooperative during and shortly after "that time of the month"
FRANKFURT. Fluctuating hormone levels change a woman's social behaviour over the course of the menstrual cycle. Mood swings and irritability before the period as well as a greater interest in sex during ovulation are well known. Now psychologists at the Goethe University have discovered that the willingness to share one's own resources with strangers also fluctuates with hormone levels. Women exhibit a higher willingness to cooperate during and shortly after menstruation - this is the result of two online studies involving over 400 German and US American women.
To qualify for the study, the participants had to have a natural menstrual cycle, in other words not be using hormone-based contraceptives, had to not be pregnant and not have entered menopause yet. The researchers compared the willingness to cooperate between women in the time during and shortly after menstruation (early follicular phase), when the levels of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone are low, and a few days after ovulation (midluteal phase), when the oestrogen and progesterone levels are especially high. The hormone levels were estimated based on the self-reported day in the cycle.
The researchers measured the subjects' individual willingness to cooperate using a well-established psychological scale, the "Social Value Orientation". To do so, they asked the women to divide fictitious money between themselves and another person who was a complete stranger to them.
"Numerous studies have shown that people who exhibit a high willingness to share in this test also donate money more often and in larger amounts in real life, take the train instead of the car to work more often and are more willing to compromise in negotiations than people with a less pronounced pro-social value orientation", Christine Anderl, lead author of the study, explains.
The two studies showed that the women were significantly more inclined to share their own resources with a stranger during and shortly after menstruation than they were a few days after ovulation.
The greater the cycle-dependent level of the "female" sex hormone oestrogen, the lower the willingness to share of the women on a purely statistical basis. "While we are firmly convinced that the variation in the willingness to share over the course of the cycle is a real and systematic effect, we still have to determine whether or not it is really caused by oestrogen as the present data suggest", Christine Anderl tells us.
"This matches the findings of other research groups, who were able to show that hormones such as oxytocin and the "male" sex hormone testosterone affect the willingness to cooperate in humans", Prof. Sabine Windmann from the Institute for Experimental Psychology 2 at the Goethe University commented. How strongly the cycle-dependent fluctuations in the willingness to cooperate affect the day-to-day life of women and which areas of life are particularly affected by this will have to be researched in further studies.
However, the researchers have already found initial evidence which suggests that the described effects also occur when the subjects are using real money. These results are also interesting in light of hormonal contraception. Little is currently known about how synthetic hormones act on the receptors in the brain and what effect they have on the behaviour of women.
Anderl, C., Hahn, T., Notebaert, K., Klotz, C., Rutter, B., & Windmann, S. (2015). Cooperative preferences fluctuate across the menstrual cycle. Judgment and Decision Making, 10(5), 400–406.
Christine Anderl, Institut für Allgemeine Psychologie 1, Campus Westend, Tel.: (069) 798- 35315, email@example.com
Civilians clearly stayed behind after the Roman military left
FRANKFURT/GERNSHEIM. During their first Gernsheim dig last year, Frankfurt University archaeologists suspected that a small Roman settlement must have also existed here in the Hessian Ried. Now they have discovered clear relics of a Roman village, built in part on the foundations of the fort after the soldiers left. This probably occurred around 120 AD. At the time the cohort (about 500 soldiers) was transferred from the Rhine to the Limes, and a period of peace lasting until about 260 AD began for the Roman village (which was part of the Roman province of Germania Superior) with the "Pax Romana".
Until a year ago, little was known about Roman Gernsheim even though Roman finds have repeatedly been made here since the 19th century. "We now know that from the 1st to the 3rd century an important village-like settlement or 'vicus' must have existed here, comparable to similar villages already proven to have existed in Groß-Gerau, Dieburg or Ladenburg", explains dig leader Dr. Thomas Maurer from the Goethe University, who has been going from Frankfurt to Southern Hesse for years in search of traces. He has published his findings in a major journal about the North Hessian Ried during the Roman imperial period.
During the second excavation campaign running from 3 August to early October, the 20 students of the "Archaeology and History of the Roman Provinces" course under the direction of Maurer have already uncovered the well-preserved foundation of a stone building, fire pits, at least two wells and some cellar pits. They also filled boxes with shards of fine, coarse and transport ceramics, which will undergo scientific examination in order to allow more accurate dating of the fort and the village. "We've also found real treasures such as rare garment clasps, several pearls, parts of a board game (dice, playing pieces) and a hairpin made from bone and crowned with a female bust", explains a delighted Maurer.
The people who settled in the village around the fort were primarily family members of the soldiers and tradespeople who benefited from the purchasing power of the military. "A temporary downturn probably resulted when the troops left – this is something we know from sites which have been studied more thoroughly", Maurer adds. However, stone buildings were already erected in the "Gernsheim Roman village" during the 2nd century, which suggests that the settlement was prospering. The population probably had mainly Gallic-Germanic origins, with perhaps a few "true" Romans – persons with Roman citizenship who moved here from faraway provinces. This is illustrated by specific archaeological finds; most notably pieces of traditional dress but also coins. One of the historic finds from Gernsheim is a coin from Bithynia (Northwest Anatolia), which was certainly not among the coins in circulation in Germania Superior but would instead have been a form of souvenir.
A troop unit with about 500 soldiers (cohort) was stationed in this area between 70/80 and 110/120 AD. Evidence of two V-shaped ditches typical of this kind of fort as well as other finds dating from the time after the fort was abandoned have been discovered here over the past year. An unusually large number of finds have been made. This is because when the Romans left they dismantled the fort and filled in the ditches. A lot of waste was disposed of in the process, especially in the inner ditch. "A stroke of luck for us," comments Prof. Dr. Hans-Markus von Kaenel from the Institute for Archaeological Sciences at Goethe University, who has been retired since 2014. Together with his colleagues and students, von Kaenel studied the Roman Southern Hesse for almost 20 years, carrying out surveys and digs as well as preparing and evaluating material. The results have been published in over 50 papers.
The fort with the settlement was erected in order to take possession of large areas to the east of the Rhine around the seventh decade of the 1st century AD, and to expand the traffic infrastructure from and to the centre Mainz-Mogontiacum. The significance of Gernsheim am Rhein during Roman times is supported by its easily accessible location, with a road to Mainlimes branching from the main Mainz – Ladenburg – Augsburg road. A Rhine harbour is suspected to exist as well, but this couldn't be confirmed during the course of this dig – "and that wasn't really expected from this particular site", Maurer says. The continued expansion of Gernsheim throughout the 20th century threatened to obliterate the archaeological traces more and more. In August of this past year, the first educational dig of the Institute for Archaeology at Goethe University began here on one of the few as yet undeveloped properties, a double lot at Nibelungenstraße 10-12.
During this year's excavation campaign, covering an area of 600 square meters on the property and thus twice as large as last year, the 20 students ensured that the soil was carefully removed, findings surveyed and documented, and objects recovered and packaged carefully. The work has been supported by the Frankfurt archaeologists from the Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Hessen (hessenARCHÄOLOGIE, Darmstadt branch) as well as the Cultural and History Association of Schöfferstadt Gernsheim. Some members of this association, which also operates the Heimatmuseum, provide help and advice to the dig team on a daily basis. The documentation and finds from this excavation campaign form the basis for further scientific work, including in the form of university theses, which will be completed at the Goethe University in the near future.
Information: Dr. Thomas Maurer, Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Campus Westend, Phone: 0177-5672114, firstname.lastname@example.org
Fotos und Bildtexte zum Download unter: www.uni-frankfurt.de/58104336
Light-sensitive protein from a fungus expands the optogenetic toolkit / publication in Nature Communications
FRANKFURT. Optogenetics is a quickly expanding field of research which has revolutionized neurobiological and cellbiological research around the world. It uses natural or tailored light-sensitive proteins in order to switch nerve cells on and off without electrodes with unprecedented accuracy in respect to time and location. The discovery of the light-gated ion channel channelrhodopsin in algae in 2002 was a key finding for this field. In 2005, Frankfurt scientists working with Prof. Alexander Gottschalk succeeded in transferring the protein to the translucent nematode C. elegans in order to control its movements with light. Together with the lab of Georg Nagel at the University of Würzburg, Gottschalk has now added another tool to the optogenetics toolbox: The protein ‘CyclOp’ from the aquatic fungus blastocladiella emersonii.
As the research group under Prof. Alexander Gottschalk reports in the current edition of the journal "Nature Communications", the CyclOp produces the second messenger cGMP when exposed to light. This important cellular signal is involved in vision, regulating blood pressure, induced cell death and also male erection. The compound Viagra, for example, leads to an increase in the cGMP level in the cells. If CyclOp is introduced to an organism like the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, then one can specifically study cGMP-dependent signal pathways within the cell. This allows optogenetics to go a step beyond previous research.
"The light-activated enzyme CyclOp has outstanding molecular properties which qualify it as a valuable addition to the optogenetics toolbox for cell biologists and neurobiologists", explains Prof. Gottschalk from the Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS) at Goethe University. His research group has introduced the protein into oxygen sensing cells in order to find out what role the second messenger cGMP plays in these cells. To do so, the translucent nematode is exposed to light leading to intracellular generation of cGMP. The cells respond by acting as if they had detected an increase in the oxygen level. In this way the researchers can use CyclOp to get a better understanding of how the natural signal for these cells is turned into a cellular response.
S. Gao, J. Nagpal, M. Schneider, V. Kozjak-Pavlovic, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk. (2015) Optogenetic manipulation of cGMP in cells and animals by the tightly light-regulated guanylyl-cyclase opsin CyclOp. Nature Communications (8. September 2015), DOI: 10.1038/NCOMMS9046
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The optogenetically modified nematode C. elegans expresses the protein CyclOp (red) in its muscles, together with a cGMP activated ion channel (green).
Emeritus Professor at the Goethe University is awarded one of the world's most prestigious science prizes.
FRANKFURT. It is considered the Nobel Prize of Philosophy: Since 2003 the John W. Kluge Center at the Washington Library of Congress has awarded the "Kluge Prize" for achievements in the humanities and social sciences. This year, the internationally renowned award has been won by the philosopher and sociologist Jürgen Habermas, who shares the prize with the Canadian social philosopher Charles Taylor. The Kluge Prize comes with a 1.5 million dollar endowment.
The prize was donated by John W. Kluge, a patron of German origin, who saw it as a means of promoting disciplines such as philosophy, sociology, anthropology and history, which are not covered by the Nobel Prize. The most famous recipients of the Kluge Prize include the French philosopher Paul Ricœur and the former Brazilian President, Fernando Henrique Cardoso.
University President Prof. Birgitta Wolff congratulated Jürgen Habermas on behalf of the Goethe University: "The awarding of the Kluge Prize to Jürgen Habermas shows that his philosophical and sociological works have been received and appreciated around the world. The jury made special mention of not just his scientific work, but also his exceptional commitment as an intellectual: in numerous socio-political debates he has spoken with passion and defended the values of democracy and freedom. This demonstrates a socially relevant commitment to science totally in line with the spirit of the mission of the Goethe University." Jürgen Habermas has been Professor of Philosophy and Sociology at the Goethe University for 25 years and is the most well-known proponent of Critical Theory in the generation after Adorno and Horkheimer. The main works published by Habermas include "The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere" (1962), "The Theory of Communicative Action" (1981) and "The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity" (1985).
In 1964 Habermas took over from Max Horkheimer as Professor of Philosophy and Sociology, and engaged in teaching and research at the Goethe University from 1964-1971, 1975-1982 and 1983-1994. Earlier, from 1956 to 1959, he worked as an assistant at the Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt, where he met Theodor W. Adorno and Max Horkheimer. Habermas was also Director of the Max Planck Institute for the Study of the Scientific-Technical World, which in 1980 became the Max Planck Institute for Social Sciences (1971-1981). Last but not least, his many overseas trips and guest professorships in the USA have brought his works to an appreciative international audience.
Habermas has won various prizes for his scientific endeavours, including the Kyoto Prize the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade, the Hessian Culture Prize, the State Prize of North Rhine-Westphalia, the Theodor W. Adorno Prize and the Hegel Prize.
More information about the Kluge Prize: http://www.loc.gov/loc/kluge/prize
Legal scholar Dr. Matthias Goldmann and archeologist Dr. Nikolas Gestrich receive coveted VolkswagenStiftung fellowship
FRANKFURT. A great success for Goethe University: The jury of the coveted ‘Freigeist’ Fellowship awarded by VolkswagenStiftung, the Volkswagen Foundation, has chosen not one, but two of Frankfurt’s junior researchers as winners – along with six other young scientists from all over Germany. Legal scholar Dr. Matthias Goldmann studies the relationship between the economic sciences and law, while archeologist Dr. Nikolas Gestrich explores the relationship between statehood, urbanism and trade in pre-colonial West Africa. The Volkswagen Foundation will put up a total of 5.3 million Euros over the coming five years to fund the eight research projects.
Dr. Matthias Goldmann
Matthias Goldmann, born in 1978, studied Law in Würzburg, specializing in European and international law. After taking his first state examination, he spent one year at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. He then took a doctoral position at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law in Heidelberg. Following his second state examination he obtained a Master of Laws from New York University School of Law. In his PhD thesis, supervised by the Director of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Prof. Armin von Bogdandy, Goldmann developed the concept of “international public authority” as a new legal focus for the ever-growing activities of international institutions in the course of globalization. It allows applying international law to instruments of international institutions such as the PISA Study or the Basel Accords which defy traditional legal categories.
In his fellowship project, Goldmann is turning his attention to the financial system, albeit he focuses again on fundamental issues. This time, it is about the relationship between two closely related disciplines: economics and the law. What is the understanding of law underlying economic knowledge, or the idea of economic knowledge implicit in legal practice? Goldmann thinks that both need to improve. Economic knowledge informs the legal regulation of the financial system and financial markets. Often, however, the respective legal rules are so vague that they disappoint the expectation implicit in the underlying economic knowledge that the law will successfully control market actors’ behavior. In turn, when those applying legal rules rely on economic insights, they realize that economic knowledge is highly disputed and subject to change. Not a good basis for an enduringly stable market economy.
One example is what is known as the no-bail-out clause in European contracts. During the financial crisis many economists agreed that the clause had been violated, but the European Court of Justice ruled otherwise. “There is no red line that can’t be crossed,” as Goldmann puts it. His theory is that we need to understand the law as a far more flexible tool, one that first and foremost serves to structure decision-making processes. Hence, “Stability through Deliberation: Finance and Public Law” is the title of his fellowship project. Ultimately, he aims at the development of legal principles which acknowledge the flexibility in the relationship between economics and the law and might therefore help stabilize the financial system. At any rate, according to Goldmann, economists and legal scholars need to engage in far more intensive exchange.
For the duration of his fellowship Matthias Goldmann, who has been collaborating with the Normative Orders Cluster of Excellence since 2013, will be based at the House of Finance, for him one of the “most renowned institutes in the banking sector.” Does he consider himself a “free spirit”? “Not necessarily more than others. After all, every scholar should strive to test his limits. The pursuit of knowledge presupposes freedom,” says Goldmann, who is to begin his fellowship in January 2016.
Dr. Nikolas Gestrich
Dr. Nikolas Gestrich is to return from the UK for his ‘Freigeist’ project. The 31-year-old German-British scholar grew up in Stuttgart and studied Archeology in Durham, going on to complete his Master’s at University College London. It was here that he also obtained his doctorate, with a thesis on the topic “The Archaeology of Social Organisation at Tongo Maaré Diabal.” He was initially attracted to UK study programs as he believes they tend to concentrate more strongly on methodology and practical work, and students don’t need to choose a direction as early as in Germany. Now however, his focus is clear: He is particularly interested in the complex societies of pre-colonial West Africa. The title of his ‘Freigeist’ project is “The Relationship of Urbanism and Trade to State Power in the Segou Region of Mali.”
“Mali’s earlier history is extremely interesting, but is still not well understood,” says Gestrich. Though largely lacking the traditional signs of civilization, such as writing or palaces and monuments, this was clearly an advanced civilization with large cities that could have held more than 50,000 inhabitants. This urban form developed around the middle reaches of the River Niger in Mali as early as around 800 BC. From around 400 AD, states emerged that controlled a large part of West Africa. Taking the example of the Markadugu, a network of former trading cities, Nikolas Gestrich now aims to investigate the relationship between states, cities and trade in pre-colonial West Africa and clearly demonstrate that their structures were considerably more complex and mutable than previously thought.
In his research Nikolas Gestrich seeks to combine archeological methods with those of history and anthropology. He will analyze archeological sites with the help of modern technologies and relate them to written Arabic sources – and to histories passed down through oral tradition. “To this day in Mali an entire social category specialises on memorizing and telling stories in public. Within families too, past events are passed down through the centuries,” notes Gestrich, who will collaborate with African scientists in his project. He will be based at the Frobenius Institute at Goethe University, where the African Archeology and African Studies departments offer him ideal research conditions. “Moreover, the institute has a library for this subject that is unparalleled in Germany,” says Gestrich. He was delighted to learn that he had been selected for a ‘Freigeist’ Fellowship: “Given that so many specialist fields were considered I think it is excellent that my project was selected – after all, it is a rather unusual research topic.”
Excellent researchers and extraordinary personalities – this is the focus of the ‘Freigeist’ Fellowship scheme, running this year for the second time. With the initiative, the Volkswagen Foundation aims to support scholars who are at home in areas that straddle established research fields and wish to engage in unconventional, high-risk research. The fellowship affords them a wide scope in terms of subject and a clear timeframe. Junior scientists who received their doctorate no longer than five years ago can apply. This year a total of 156 funding applications were submitted. The official awards ceremony will take place on September 25 at the conference center at Schloss Herrenhausen in Hanover.