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New study by Goethe University’s Academy for Islam in Research and Society (AIWG) on the career entry of graduates of Islamic Theology and Religious Education Studies
What profession do graduates of the recently established academic degree on Islamic Theological Studies at German Universities take up after having completed their studies? Within the German context, that question has now been addressed in a study prepared by Goethe University's Academy for Islam in Research and Society (AIWG), in collaboration with the Universities of Giessen and Mainz. The results of the study, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, were recently published in the Academy's "WiFo paper" publication series.
FRANKFURT Up to 2,500 young people study Islamic Theology or religious education at German universities. Where do they work once they have completed their studies: in schools, as imams, as social workers, in the media? An interdisciplinary team from the universities of Giessen, Mainz and Frankfurt took a closer look at precisely this question, and the AIWG just published the qualitative and quantitative results of the study "Berufsfeld Islam" (“Islam as an occupational field") in its publication format "WiFo paper".
More than 200 graduates of Islamic Theological Studies at universities in five German states were interviewed for the study: What professions did they pursue after studying Islam? How well do they feel their studies prepared them for the working world? What are the factors that favor career entry? The results show for which professions the Islamic Theological Studies introduced at German universities in 2011 primarily qualify students.
Social work and teaching as important fields of employment
The central findings of the "Berufsfeld Islam" study: Almost half the graduates are employed in social work or related professional fields. Another 40 percent work in educational professions. By contrast, hardly any participants in the study work full-time as imams. In retrospect, most respondents see the study of Islamic theology or religious education as a phase of intellectual and personal development. However, feedback also showed that many wished their studies would have better prepared them for their later activities.
Two-thirds of those who have completed a teaching degree program would choose this path again. After completing their studies, they have a relatively clear career profile in mind and a regulated transition into the teaching profession. However, many report increased structural hurdles and burdens, since Islamic religious education is still in the process of being established.
By contrast, less than half would choose the theological focus again. After completing their studies, these graduates have to explore their own careers, and, in the first few years, are usually only employed on a temporary basis. It is worth noting, however, that the employment rate here is at the same level as that for other humanities.
In general, the study shows that graduates make an above-average contribution to society. More than half of them are involved in voluntary work. In particular, those with a theology major often take on responsibility in religious and social institutions.
"With the follow-up study of graduates, we now have important, systematically collected information on students' career entry for the first time. In addition, the results of the study can help students and prospective students get a clearer picture of the opportunities the degree programs offer and what additional key competencies are important for a successful career entry, especially in the humanities," comments AIWG Director Prof. Bekim Agai on the study results. "The study suggests that practice-oriented study programs, such as part-time master's degrees, should also be offered. Internships, volunteer work or semesters abroad are also helpful for a successful career start," says Prof. Naime Çakir-Mattner from the University of Giessen, who led the research project together with Prof. Constantin Wagner from the University of Mainz. The survey was conducted among graduates who had obtained a bachelor's degree or a state examination in Islamic theology or religious education at universities in Frankfurt, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Giessen, Münster, Osnabrück or Tübingen between 2016 and 2019. More than 200 of the total of some 570 graduates from this period took part in the study.
About the project leadership
Naime Çakir-Mattner is a professor of Islamic theology, with a focus on Muslim lifestyles, at Justus Liebig University Giessen. Her research interests include migration, gender and religion, islamophobia and racism, Islam and Muslims in the European context.
Constantin Wagner is Professor of Educational Science, with a focus on heterogeneity, at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz. His research interests include heterogeneity and social inequality in post-migrant society and Islam(understandings) in postcolonial Europe. He is the author of the AIWG expertise "Who Studies Islamic Theology? An Overview of the Subject and its Students".
About the AIWG "WiFo paper"
The WiFo papers series publishes project reports, position papers, and exploratory contributions from AIWG's scientific project groups . They take up Islamic-theological topics from inter-university projects and thus contribute to specialist discourses and interdisciplinary exchange.
The study (in German) can be downloaded from the AIWG website: https://aiwg.de/wp-content/uploads/2022/11/WiFo-paper-Berufsfeld-Islam.pdf
The key findings of Prof. Constantin Wagner's expertise “Who Studies Islamic Theology? An Overview of the Subject and its Students" is available online and includes an English summary on pages 7-9: https://aiwg.de/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Wer-studiert-islamische-Theologie_Expertise.pdf
Charts and book titles available for downloat at: https://www.uni-frankfurt.de/129125771
The images and charts provided may be used editorially only in the context of reporting on the publication.
Caption: A new study by the Academy for Islam in Research and Society (AIWG) looks at the career entry of graduates in Islamic Theological Studies and religious education. (Charts: Erkin Calisir/AIWG)
Coordinator Science Communication and PR
Academy for Islam in Research and Society Goethe University
Phone: +49 (0)69 798-22459
About the AIWG
The Academy for Islam in Research and Society (AIWG) at the Goethe University in Frankfurt conducts interdisciplinary research and transfer activities with a focus on Islamic Theological Studies and Muslim life in Germany. It connects all faculties for Islamic Theological Studies or Islamic religious pedagogy located in a University in Germany. The academy addresses issues of social participation by including perspectives related to religion. The AIWG is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and by the Stiftung Mercator foundation.
Editor: Dr. Anke Sauter, Science Editor, PR & Communication Office, Tel: +49 (0) 69 798-13066, Fax: +49 (0) 69 798-763 12531, email@example.com
Physicist receives prestigious European Research Council grant to study quantum mechanical tunneling effect
In the world of quantum physics, electrons sometimes manage to overcome the binding forces of the atomic nucleus and leave the atom, even though they do not actually have enough energy to do so. For his research into this so-called quantum mechanical tunneling effect, physicist Sebastian Eckart of Goethe University Frankfurt has now been awarded one of the coveted European Research Council (ERC) Starting Grants. He and his team will use the funding of about 1.8 million euros over the next five years to analyze the quantum mechanical tunnel effect in three dimensions. The ERC Starting Grants are intended to enable young scientists to drive forward independent research projects over several years.
FRANKFURT. The "Starting Grant" from the European Research Council offers experimental physicist Sebastian Eckart from Goethe University's Institute of Nuclear Physics the opportunity to literally enter new physical territory with his research group: "We want to look at the quantum mechanical tunnel effect in three dimensions," Eckart says. This has not been possible in this form until now, even though the tunnel effect has been known for decades and is well-studied due to its fundamental importance for quantum physics.
In the tunnel effect, a particle passes through a potential barrier which, according to the rules of classical physics, is insurmountable for the particle. An analog example from mechanics would be a ball that can roll over a hill only if its kinetic energy exceeds the potential energy it has at the top of the hill. In quantum mechanics, particles are occasionally able to overcome such hills even if they do not actually have enough energy to do so: They "simply" move through the hill, an act known as "tunneling." The tunneling effect in fact is one of the seemingly paradoxical quantum phenomena. In quantum mechanics, it can be explained a bit like this: Due to the peculiarities of quantum physics, particles are in fact also waves. An offshoot of these particle waves is capable of reaching through the potential barrier and thus enables the particle to manifest itself beyond the barrier and "free" itself from it.
"We take simple argon atoms as the system for study and send a beam of this noble gas through our sample chamber," Eckart says. The potential barrier required for the tunneling effect consists of the electromagnetic attraction the atomic nucleus exerts on the argon atoms' electrons. Using extremely strong laser pulses that hit the atom from different directions and reach an intensity of about a quadrillion watts per square centimeter at the point of intersection, the electrons in the atom can every now and then be "persuaded" to tunnel. Even if the frequency of the irradiated laser pulses is too low to cause direct ionization, at such strong-field intensities the electric fields of the laser pulses shift the electron particle waves in a way enabling the tunneling effect – something that occurs in about a quarter of the atoms.
Particularly exciting for the fundamental understanding of the tunnel effect will be how the properties of the laser pulses – i.e. their directions of oscillation in all three spatial dimensions – interact with the tunneling electrons. Although it is known that the angular momentum of the light particles and the electrons can have a strong influence on the tunneling effect, certain combinations in the properties of the laser pulses and the released electrons serve to strengthen or weaken this effect. However, to date this has never been studied in all three dimensions. To do just that, Eckart is using a Frankfurt co-invention: the COLTRIMS reaction microscope, which allows atomic events to be resolved in three dimensions. This will make it possible to answer old and fundamental questions about quantum physics as well as light-matter interaction.
Images for download: https://uni-frankfurt.de/128953822
Caption: Dr. Sebastian Eckart of Goethe University's Institute of Nuclear Physics. Photo: private
Frankfurt physicists receive prestigious awards from world's largest physics society
Two Goethe University physicists have been awarded high-ranking prizes by the German Physical Society. Dr. Sebastian Eckart from the Institute of Nuclear Physics has received the Gustav Hertz Prize, endowed with 7500 euros, for his contributions to fundamental questions of quantum mechanics. Professor Thomas Wilhelm from the Department of Physics Education was bestowed with the Robert Wichard Pohl Award and a prize money of 5000 Euro for his outstanding contributions to the modernization of physics education. The awards were announced by the German Physical Society (Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, DPG) on November 17, 2022.
FRANKFURT. Sebastian Eckart has succeeded in conducting groundbreaking experiments in atomic physics on the shortest time scale: Using ultrashort laser fields, he was able to generate ring currents in single atoms by selectively removing electrons with a specific sense of orbit from the atom. The result was an ion with a defined ring current in which the majority of electrons orbit in one direction around the atomic nucleus. This demonstrated the possibility of storing information in individual atoms in the form of ring currents, whereby "writing" and "reading" occur in a few femtoseconds (one femtosecond is 0.0000000000001 seconds). In another paper, Eckart was able to measure tiny time delays – of only about 0.02 femtoseconds – of electrons emitted from molecules. In his latest work, he succeeded in creating an entangled pair of atoms within a few femtoseconds. Entanglement is a quantum effect in which particles can only be described together, even if they are at a greater distance from each other. The "spooky action at a distance" – so coined by Einstein – can now finally be studied at the atomic level with extremely high time resolution.
How can teachers improve learning in physics lessons, from primary school to university? This question has been at the forefront of the mind of physics educationalist Professor Thomas Wilhelm for more than two decades. He has shown that the teaching concepts developed by him enable students to understand the material taught better than in conventional lessons. However, the didactic preparation of the material alone is not enough, his research shows, because it also depends on how one embeds physical terms in pupils' everyday concepts of physics and with their way of thinking and approaching learning itself, i.e. with the "mindset". Thomas Wilhelm has produced a number of books with teaching materials, has written several textbooks for physics teacher training programs and physics teachers, and has published a large number of practical teaching articles in teacher journals. In its tribute to the award winner, the DPG writes: "His work is characterized by a strong subject and school orientation and combines his numerous projects for the development of teaching concepts and materials well-grounded in research on physics pedagogy. His projects have a great impact on teachers and contribute significantly to the further development of physics teaching."
Sebastian Eckart studied physics in Constance from 2009-2015 with stays abroad in Italy and Oman. He completed his master's thesis under Professor Alfred Leitenstorfer, Chair of Experimental Physics at the University of Constance. In 2019, he completed his PhD at Goethe University Frankfurt in the group of Professor Reinhard Dörner at the Institute of Nuclear Physics. In 2020, his outstanding PhD on "Strong Field Ionization in Two-Color Fields" received the Dissertation Award of the Association of Friends and Sponsors of Goethe University and the Institute of Physics, the main professional association for physicists in the UK and Ireland. After research stays in Berkeley and Vienna, Sebastian Eckart is now a postdoctoral researcher at Goethe University.
Thomas Wilhelm studied physics and mathematics for the grammar school teaching profession, after which he worked as a grammar school teacher in Marktbreit. In 2005, he received his doctorate from the Justus-Maximilians-Universität of Würzburg for his thesis on dynamic visualisations in mechanics. His habilitation in 2011 was on innovative video-based approaches to the analysis of motion videos. In 2012, he accepted an appointment at Goethe University, where he has since been a professor of physics education. He has received numerous prizes and awards for his research, including the Frankfurt Physics 2021 Science Prize.
The Gustav Hertz Prize recognizes outstanding, recently completed work by young physicists to encourage scientists at an early stage in their careers. The work has to come from the fields of experimental or theoretical physics, show some degree of completion, and contain new insights. In this context, "insights" are not understood solely in the sense of fundamentals; rather, results are also valued in terms of application and practice. The Gustav Hertz Prize was created in 1992 following the merge of the Prize of the DPG – Physics Prize – and the Gustav Hertz Prize of the Physical Society of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR).
The Robert Wichard Pohl Award is awarded for outstanding contributions to physics that have a special impact on other disciplines in science and technology, for exceptional achievements in the dissemination of scientific knowledge in teaching at university, in the classroom and in physics education research. With some 55,000 members, the German Physical Society is the world's largest professional physics society.
Images for download: https://www.uni-frankfurt.de/128479719
Caption: Goethe University award winners:
Professor Thomas Wilhelm, Department of Physics Education. Photo: private
Dr. Sebastian Eckart, Institute of Nuclear Physics. Photo: private
Researchers in Frankfurt discover new mechanism of chemotherapy resistance in colon cancer
Researchers at Georg-Speyer-Haus and Goethe University Frankfurt have discovered a new mechanism that explains why only some of the cells in a colon tumour respond to chemotherapy. The research team led by Professor Florian Greten was able to establish that tumour cells dying off during chemotherapy communicate one last time with neighbouring tumour cells to give them instructions on how to resist the therapy. The dying cells re-programme the signalling cascades in the neighbouring tumour cells in such a way that these are no longer vulnerable to chemotherapy. By doing so, the dying cells literally ensure that the tumour survives.
FRANKFURT. Colorectal carcinoma is the second most common cause of cancer death in Germany. Although cancer research in recent years has been able to significantly improve early diagnosis and therapy, the resistance of advanced colorectal tumours to common chemotherapies still constitutes a major problem and contributes substantially to the high mortality rate of patients with such tumours.
When chemotherapeutic agents cause colon cancer cells to die, they release ATP (adenosine triphosphate) molecules, the cell's energy currency, as a messenger substance. Researchers led by Professor Florian Greten at Georg-Speyer-Haus have now corroborated this in experiments. This ATP binds to certain receptors (P2X4 purinoreceptors) on the surface of surrounding tumour cells. This activates an important survival signalling pathway in these neighbouring cells, which protects them from cell death and makes the tumour resistant to therapy.
The cells killed off by the chemotherapy “warn" their neighbouring cells, as it were, and at the same time provide them with a survival strategy. However, if the communication between the dying tumour cells and their neighbours is interrupted – as the scientists were able to show in preclinical models – this raises the efficiency of the chemotherapy many times over, and tumours that were initially resistant respond very well to it.
Dr. Mark Schmitt, first author of the study, explains: “Our research results demonstrate that – despite years of successful research – unknown mechanisms are still being discovered which show us how perfidiously tumour cells evade therapy. Our results now offer a new and promising starting point for substantially improving the response rate of advanced colorectal carcinomas to common chemotherapeutic agents by means of combination therapy."
Professor Florian Greten, director of Georg-Speyer-Haus and spokesperson for the LOEWE Centre Frankfurt Cancer Institute explains: “We were surprised to see that tumour cells have developed communication mechanisms to the point that even the dying ones play an active role in ensuring their neighbours' survival when under therapeutic 'attack'. We hope very much that by interrupting the communication between the cells we can achieve this tremendous increase in the effect of standard therapy in patients as well." The team now wants to work with colleagues at the Frankfurt Cancer Institute to test this new therapeutic concept in patients.
Publication: Mark Schmitt, Fatih Ceteci, Jalaj Gupta, Marina Pesic, Tim W. Böttger, Adele M. Nicolas, Kilian B. Kennel, Esther Engel, Matthias Schewe, Asude Kirisozu, Valentina Petrocelli, Yasamin Dabiri, Julia Varga, Mallika Ramakrishnan, Madina Karimova, Andrea Ablasser, Toshiro Sato, Melek C. Arkan, Frederic J. de Sauvage & Florian R. Greten: Colon tumour cell death causes mTOR dependence by paracrine P2X4 stimulation. Nature (2022) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05426-1
Picture download: https://www.uni-frankfurt.de/128472339
Captions: Prof. Dr. Florian Greten, Georg-Speyer Haus. Foto: Uwe Dettmar für Goethe-Universität-Frankfurt Dr. Mark Schmitt, Foto: Eliana Stanganello
Professor Florian R. Greten
Georg-Speyer-Haus / Goethe University Frankfurt
Institute for Tumour Biology and Experimental Therapy
Tel.: +49 (0)69 63395-232
Global study’s ranking includes the one percent of scientists cited most frequently
Six of the nearly 7,000 most cited scientists in the world conduct research at Goethe University Frankfurt. That is the result of the current citation ranking of the "Web of Science", published by Clarivate Analytics.
FRANKFURT. In most cases, it is fundamental scientific findings that result in a paper being cited frequently by other scientists. That is why citation frequency serves as an indicator of the published articles' scientific significance as well as the authors' visibility in the scientific community.
Once a year, information and technology company Clarivate Analytics evaluates its "Web of Science" citation database and publishes the "Highly Cited Researchers" ranking. The current ranking includes 6,938 scientists, in no particular order, who belonged to the one percent of authors whose scientific articles in the natural and engineering sciences, medicine, and the categories "Economics and Business" and "Social Sciences" were cited most frequently between 2011 and 2021, either within their own category or in different subjects ("cross-field").
Here are the "highly cited" Goethe researchers of 2022:
Professor Ivan Đikić
Director of Goethe University's Institute for Biochemistry II (Molecular Cell Biochemistry)
in the categories “Molecular Biology" and “Genetics"
Professor Stefanie Dimmeler
Director of Goethe University's Institute of Cardiovascular Regeneration / Institute for Molecular Medicine / German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (Deutsches Zentrum für Herz-Kreislauf-Forschung, DZHK) / Spokeswoman of the Cardio-Pulmonary Institute (CPI) excellence cluster jointly operated by Goethe University, Justus-Liebig-University Gießen and the Max-Planck-Institute for Heart and Lung Research
in the category “Cross Field"
Professor Petra Döll
Managing Director of Goethe University's Institute of Physical Geography
in the category “Cross Field"
Professor Stefan Knapp
Goethe University's Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
in the category “Cross Field"
apl. Professor Sibylle Loibl
Goethe University Faculty of Medicine / German Breast Group Forschungs GmbH, Neu-Isenburg
in the category “Clinical Medicine"
Professor Stefan Zeuzem
Dean of Goethe University's Faculty of Medicine / Director of Medical Clinic I – Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Pneumology and Allergology, Endocrinology and Diabetology, as well as Nutritional Medicine
in the category “Clinical Medicine"
Images for download: https://www.uni-frankfurt.de/128363352
Professor Ivan Đikić, Goethe University Frankfurt, Photo: Uwe Dettmar for Goethe University
Professor Stefanie Dimmeler, Goethe University Frankfurt Photo: Uwe Dettmar for Goethe University
Professor Petra Döll, Goethe University Frankfurt, Photo: Jürgen Lecher for Goethe University
Professor Stefan Knapp, Goethe University Frankfurt, Photo: Uwe Dettmar for Goethe University
apl. Professor Sibylle Loibl, Goethe University Frankfurt, Photo: Joppen for GBG Forschungs GmbH
Professor Stefan Zeuzem, Goethe University Frankfurt, Photo: Uwe Dettmar for Goethe University