Middle Atmosphere

A reliable treatment of the middle atmosphere is important for many aspects of climate modelling and medium-range weather forecasts. At the same time this region of the atmosphere is comparatively little understood. Much of our work aims at an improved understanding and an improved modeling of the middle atmosphere.



Achatz, U., Alexander, M.J., Becker, E., Chun, H.-Y., Dörnbrack, A., Holt, L., PLougonven, R., Polichtchouk, I., Sato, K., Sheshadri, A., Stephan, C., van Niekerk, A., und Wright, C. (2023). Atmospheric Gravity Waves: Processes and Parameterization. J. Atmos. Sci., doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-23-0210.1

Achatz, U., Kim, Y.-H., und Voelker, G. S. (2023). Multi-scale dynamics of the interaction between waves and mean flows: From nonlinear WKB theory to gravity-wave parameterizations in weather and climate models. J. Math. Phys., 64(11) (https://pubs.aip.org/aip/jmp/article/64/11/111101/2919302/Multi-scale-dynamics-of-the-interaction-between)

Dolaptchiev, S., Spichtinger, P., Baumgartner, M., und Achatz, U. (2023). Interactions between gravity waves and cirrus clouds: asymptotic modeling of wave induced ice nucleation. J. Atmos. Sci., doi:10.1175/JAS-D-22-0234.1


Schmid, F., Gagarina, E., Klein, R., and U. Achatz, 2021:  Towards a numerical laboratory for investigations of gravity-wave mean-flow interactions in the atmosphere. Mon. Wea. Rev. accepted

Kim, Y.-H., and U. Achatz, 2021: Interaction between stratospheric Kelvin waves and gravity waves in the easterly QBO phase. Geophys. Res. Lett., accepted.

Bölöni, G., Kim, Y.-H., Borchert, S., and U. Achatz, 2021: Toward transient subgrid-scale gravity wave representation in atmospheric models. Part I: Propagation model including non-dissipative direct wave-mean-flow interactions. J. Atmos. Sci., accepted. (pdf)

Völker, G.S., Akylas T.R. and U. Achatz, 2021: An Application of WKBJ Theory for Triad Interactions of Internal GravityWaves in Varying Background Flows. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., accepted


Baumgartner, M., Weigel, R., Harvey, A.H., Plöger, F., Achatz, U., and P. Spichtinger, 2020: Reappraising the appropriate calculation of a common meteorological quantity: Potential Temperature. Atmos. Chem. Phys., accepted

Kim, Y., G. Bölöni, S. Borchert, H. Chun, and U. Achatz, 2020: Towards transient subgrid-scale gravity wave representation in atmospheric models. Part II: Wave intermittency simulated with convective sources. J. Atmos. Sci., doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-20-0066.1.


Achatz, U., Ribstein, B., Senf, F., and R. Klein 2017: The interaction between synoptic-scale balanced flow and a finite-amplitude mesoscale wave field throughout all atmospheric layers: Weak and moderately strong stratification. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308939266_The_interaction_between_synoptic-scale_balanced_flow_and_a_finite-amplitude_mesoscale_wave_field_throughout_all_atmospheric_layers_Weak_and_moderately_strong_stratification_Interaction_between_synopti Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 143, 342–361


Bölöni, G.,  Ribstein, B., Muraschko, J., Sgoff, C., Wei, J. and U. Achatz 2016: The interaction between atmospheric gravity waves and large-scale flows: an efficient description beyond the non-acceleration paradigm. J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 4833-4852 (pdf)

Ribstein, B. and  U. Achatz 2016: The interaction between gravity waves and solar tides in a linear tidal model with a 4D ray-tracing gravity-wave parameterization. J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2016JA022478 (pdf)


Ribstein, B., Achatz, U., and F. Senf, 2015: The interaction between Gravity Waves and Solar Tides: Results from 4D Ray Tracing coupled to a Linear Tidal Model, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2015JA021349 (pdf)


Fruman, M.D., Remmler, S., Achatz, U. und S. Hickel, 2014: On the construction of a direct numerical simulation of a breaking inertia-gravity wave in the upper mesosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 11,613--11,640 (pdf)


Achatz, U., F. Senf and N. Grieger, Solar diurnal tides in the middle atmosphere: Interactions with the zonal mean flow, planetary waves and gravity waves. In Climate and weather
of the sun-earth system (CAWSES):Highlights from a priority program. Ed. F.-J. Lübken. Springer: Dordrecht. 


Senf, F. and Achatz, U. On the impact of middle-atmosphere thermal tides on the propagation and dissipation of gravity waves. J. Geophys. Res. 116, D24110, doi:10.1029/2011JD015794 (pdf)


Achatz, U., Klein, R.,Senf, F., Gravity waves, scale asymptotics and the pseudo-incompressible equations. J. Fluid Mech., 663, 120-147  (pdf)


Achatz, U., Grieger, N., Schmidt, H., Mechanisms controlling the diurnal solar tide: Analysis using a GCM and a linear model. J. Geophys. Res.,113, A08303, doi:10.1029/2007JA012967 (pdf)