Journal articles

In Press

  • Dreisoerner, A., Klaic, A., van Dick, R., & Junker, N.M., (in press). Self-Compassion as a means to foster job-related well-being in academia. Journal of Happiness Studies.
  • Hubenschmid, L., Helmreich, I., Köber, G., Gilan, D., Frenzel, S.B., van Dick, R., & Lieb, K. (in press). Effects of general and corona-specific stressors on mental burden during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Germany. Frontiers in Public Health.
  • Frenzel, S.B., Junker, N.M., Häusser, J.A., Erkens, V.A., & van Dick, R. (in press). How team identification relates to lower burnout – emotional and instrumental support as two different social cure mechanisms. British Journal of Social Psychology
  • Bodla, A., Li, Y., Ali, A., & Hernandez Bark, A. S. (in press). Female leaders’ social network structures and managerial performance: The moderating effects of promotional orientation and climate for inclusion. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology.
  • Grünenwald, I., Kaluza, A.J., Schultze, M., & Van Dick, R. (in press). Stress mindset and social identification in chronic pain patients and their relationship to coping, well-being & depression. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
  • Kaluza, A.J., & Van Dick, R. (in press). Telework at times of a pandemic: The role of voluntariness in the perception of disadvantages of telework. Current Psychology
  • Junker, N. M., van Dick, R., Häusser, J. A., Ellwart, T., & Zyphur, M. J. (in press). The I and we of team identification: A multilevel study of exhaustion and (in)congruence among individuals and teams in team identification. Group & Organization Management
  • Laguía, A., Moriano, J.A., Molero, F., García-Ael, C. & van Dick, R. (in press). Identity leadership and work engagement in Spain: A cross-cultural adaptation of the Identity Leadership Inventory. Universitas Psychologica.


  • Henk, K., Rosing, F., Wolff, F., Frenzel, S.B., van Dick, R., Erkens, V.A., Häusser, J.A., Mojzisch, A., & Boer, D. (2023). An examination and extension of the Peltzman effect during the Covid-19 pandemic. Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology, 4, 100091.
  • Bracht, E., Monzani, L., Boer, D., Haslam, S.A., Kerschreiter, R., Lemoine, J.E., Steffens, N.K., Akfirat, S.A., Avanzi, L., Barghi, B., Dumont, K., Edelmann, C.M., Epitropaki, O., Fransen, K., Giessner, S., Gleibs, I.H., González, R., González, A.L., Lipponen, J., Markovits, Y., Molero, F., Moriano, J.A., , Neves, P., Orosz, G., Roland-Lévy, C., Schuh, S.C., Sekiguchi, T., Song, L.J., Story, J.S.P., Stouten, J., Tatachari, S., Valdenegro, D., van Bunderen, L., Vörös, V., Wong, S.I., Youssef, F., Zhang, X.-a., & van Dick, R. (2023). Innovation across cultures: connecting leadership, identification, and creative behavior in organizations. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 72(1), 348-388.  


  • Scharinger, M., & Erfurth, L.M. (2022). Cultural evolution is not independent of linguistic evolution and social aspects of language use. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 45 , e268.
  • Frenzel, S. B., Junker, N. M., Häusser, J. A., Erkens, V. A., & van Dick, R. (2022). Team identification relates to lower burnout—Emotional and instrumental support as two different social cure mechanisms. British Journal of Social Psychology. DOI: 10.1111/bjso.12588
  • Hernandez Bark, A.S., Monzani, L., & Van Dick, R. (2022). “I am one of you!” Team prototypicality as a facilitator for female leaders" Frontiers in Psychology 13:859577.
  • Obioma, I. F., Jaga, A., Raina, M., Asekun, W. A., & Hernandez Bark, A. S. (2022). Gendered share of housework and the COVID-19 pandemic: Examining self-ratings and speculation of others in Germany, India, Nigeria, and South Africa. Journal of Social Issues, published online ahead of print.
  • Kaluza, A. J., Junker, N. M., Schuh, S. C., Raesch, P., von Rooy, N. K., & van Dick, R. (2022). A leader in need is a leader indeed? The influence of leaders' stress mindset on their perception of employee well-being and their intended leadership behavior. Applied Psychology, 71( 4), 1347– 1384.
  • Kaluza, A. J., & Junker, N. M. (2022). Caring for yourself and others: Team health climate and self-care explain the relationship between health-oriented leadership and exhaustion. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 37(7), 655–668.
  • Frenzel, S.B., Kaluza, A.J., Junker, N.M., & Van Dick, R. (2022). Sweet as Sugar—How shared social identities help patients in coping with Diabetes Mellitus. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(17), 10508;
  • Hernandez Bark, A. S., Junker, N. M., Kark, R., Morgenroth, T., Peus, C., & van Dick, R. (2022).   Editorial to Part I: Revisioning, rethinking, restructuring gender at work: Quo Vadis Gender Stereotypes? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 52(8), 563–567.
  • Junker, N. M., Hernandez Bark, A. S., Kark, R., Morgenroth, T., Peus, C., & van Dick, R. (2022).   Editorial to Part II: Revisioning, rethinking, restructuring gender at work: Contributors to Gender-Role Stereotyping.  Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 52(8), 704-709.
  • Blessin, M., Lehmann, S., Kunzler, A.M., van Dick, R. & Lieb, K. (2022). Resilience Interventions Conducted in Western and Eastern Countries—A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 19, 6913. 19116913
  • Grünenwald, I., Kaluza, A.J., Schultze, M., & Van Dick, R. (2022). Stress mindset and social identification in chronic pain patients and their relationship to coping, well-being & depression. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings. [IF 2.615; Category: Psychology, Clinical 108/283; Q2]
  • Frenzel, S.B., Haslam, S.A., Junker, N.M., Bolatov, A., Erkens, V.A., Häusser, J.A., Kark, R., Meyer, I., Mojzisch, A., Monzani, L., Reicher, S., Samekin, A., Schuh, S.C., Steffens, N.K., Sultanova, L., van Dijk, D., van Zyl, L.E., & van Dick, R. (2022). How national leaders keep ‘us’ safe: A longitudinal four-nation study exploring the role of identity leadership as a predictor of adherence to COVID-19 non-pharmaceutical interventions. BMJ Open; 12:e054980. https://.org/doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-054980 [IF 2.692; Category: Medicine 141/793; Q1]
  • Avanzi, L., Savadori, L., Fraccaroli, F., Ciampa, V., & Van Dick, R. (2022). Too-Much-of-a-Good-Thing? The curvilinear relation between identification, overcommitment, and employee well-being. Current Psychology Current Psychology, 41(3), 1256–1266. 
  • Frenzel, S. B., Junker, N. M., Avanzi, L., Erkens, V. A., Haslam, S. A., Haslam, C., Häusser, J. A., Knorr, D., Meyer, I., Mojzisch, A., Monzani, L., Reicher, S. D., Schuh, S. C., Steffens, N. K., van Zyl, L. E., & van Dick, R. (2022). Perceptions of the Targets and Sources of COVID-19 Threat are Structured by Group Memberships and Responses are Influenced by Identification with Humankind. Psychologica Belgica, 62(1), pp. 75–88. DOI:
  • Liang, S., Lupina-Wegener, A., Ullrich, J., & Van Dick, R. (2022). ‘Change is our Continuity’: Chinese Managers’ Construction of Post-Merger Identification After an Acquisition in Europe. Journal of Change Management, 22:1, 59-78, DOI: 10.1080/14697017.2021.1951812
  • Junker, N. M., van Dick, R., Häusser, J. A., Ellwart, T., & Zyphur, M. J. (2022). The I and we of team identification: A multilevel study of exhaustion and (in)congruence among individuals and teams in team identification. Group & Organization Management, 47(1), 41-71.
  • Frenzel, S., Junker, N.M., Avanzi, L., Bolatov, A., Haslam, S.A., Häusser, J.A., Kark, R., Meyer, I., Mojzisch, A., Monzani, L., Reicher, S., Samekin, A., Schury, V.A., Steffens, N.K., Sultanova, L., Van Dijk, D., Van Zyl, L.E., & Van Dick, R. (2022). A trouble shared is a trouble halved: The role of family identification and identification with humankind in well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. British Journal of Social Psychology, 61(1), 55-82.


  • Monzani, L., Mateu, G., Hernandez Bark, A. S., & Martinez-Villavicencio, J., (2021). Reducing the cost of being the boss: Authentic leadership suppresses the effect of role stereotype conflict on antisocial behaviors in leaders and entrepreneurs. Frontiers in Psychology.
  • Hernandez Bark, A. S., Seliverstova, K. & Ohly, S. (2021). Getting credit for proactivity? The effect of gender. Published online ahead of print. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 52 (8), 660-675.
  • Laguía, A., Moriano, J. A., Molero, F., García-Ael, C., & van Dick, R. (2021). Identity leadership and work Engagement in Spain: A Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Identity Leadership Inventory. Universitas Psychologica, 2020, 1–13.
  • Junker, N. M., Baumeister, R. F., Straub, K., & Greenhaus, J. H. (2021). When forgetting what happened at work matters: The role of affective rumination, problem-solving pondering, and self-control in work-family conflict and enrichment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 106(11), 1750 – 1766.
  • Van Dick, R., , Cordes, B.L. Lemoine, J.E., Steffens, N.K., Haslam, S.A., Akfirat, S.A., Ballada, C.J.A., Bazarov, T., Aruta, J.J.B.R., Avanzi, L., Bodla, A.A., Bunjak, A., Černe, M., Dumont, K., Edelmann, C.M., Epitropaki, O., Fransen, K., García-Ael, C., Giessner, S., Gleibs, I., Godlewska-Werner, D., Gonzalez, R., Kark, R., Laguia Gonzalez, A., Lam, H., Lipponen, J., Lupina-Wegener, A., Markovits, Y., Maskor, M., Molero Alonso, F.J., Monzani, L., Moriano Leon, J.A., Neves, P., Orosz, G., Pandey, D., Retowski, S., Roland-Lévy, C., Samekin, A., Schuh, S., Sekiguchi, T., Song, L.J., Story, J., Stouten, J., Sultanova, L., Tatachari, S., Valdenegro, D., van Bunderen, L., van Dijk, D., Wong, S.I., Youssef, F., Zhang, X-a., & Kerschreiter, R. (2021). Identity leadership, employee burnout, and the mediating role of team identification: Evidence from the Global Identity Leadership Development project. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health; 18(22):12081.  [IF 3.390; Category: PUBLIC, ENVIRONMENTAL & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH 42/176; median: 2.672]
  • Erfurth, L.M., Hernandez Bark, A.S., Molenaar, C., Aydin, A.l., & Van Dick, R. (2021). “If worse comes to worst, my neighbors come first”: social identity as a collective resilience factor in areas threatened by sea floods. SN Social Sciences, 1, 272. [IF : 4.691; Category: Psychology, Social, 9/66 = Q1)
  • Dreisoerner, A., Junker, N.M., Schlotz, W., Heimrich, J., Bloemeke, S. Ditzen, B., Van Dick, R. (2021). Self-soothing touch and being hugged reduce cortisol responses to stress: A randomized controlled trial on stress, physical touch, and social identity. Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology, 8, 100091.
  • Haslam, C., Steffens, N.K., & Van Dick, R. (2021). El poder curativo del grupo. Mente y Cerebro, 10_2021, 10-17.
  • Baethge*, A., Junker, N. M.*, & Rigotti, T.* (2021). Does work engagement physiologically deplete? Results from a daily diary study. Work & Stress. (all authors contributed equally)
  • Avanzi, L., Perinelli, E., Bressan, M., Balducci, C., Lombardi, L., Fraccaroli, F., & Van Dick, R. (2021). The mediational effect of social support between organizational identification and employees’ health: A three-wave study on the social cure model. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping.
  • Kaluza, A. J., Aydin, A. L., Cordes, B. L., Ebers, G., Fuchs, A., Konietzny, C., Van Dick, R., & Baumann, U. (2021). A sorrow shared is a sorrow halved? Patient and parental anxiety associated with venipuncture in children before and after liver transplantation. Children8(8), 691. 
  • Liang, S., Ullrich, J., Van Dick, R., & Lupina-Wegener, A. (2021). The intergroup sensitivity effect in mergers and acquisitions: Testing the role of merger motives. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 51(8), 769–778.
  • Marx-Fleck, S., Junker, N.M., Artinger, F., & van Dick, R. (2021). Defensive Decision Making: Operationalization and the relevance of psychological safety and job insecurity from a conservation of resources perspective. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 94(3), 616-644.
  • March, E., Grieve, R., Clancy, E., Klettke, B., Hernandez-Bark, A., & Van Dick, R. (2021). The role of individual differences in Cyber Dating Abuse perpetration. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking.
  • Obioma, I. F., Hentschel, T., & Hernandez-Bark A. S. (2021). Gender stereotypes and self-characterizations in Germany and Nigeria: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Applied Social Psychology.1–17.
  • Goldschmidt, I., Van Dick, R., Jacobi, C., Pfister, E.-D., & Baumann, U. (2021). Identification of impaired executive functioning after paediatric liver transplantation using two short and easily applicable tests: Cognitive Functioning Module PedsQL and Children’s Colour Trail Test. Children, 8, 571.
  • Molenaar, C., Blessin, M., Erfurth, L., Imhoff, R. (2021). Were we stressed or was it just me - and does it even matter?: Efforts to disentangle individual and collective resilience within real and imagined stressors. British Journal of Social Psychology [IF : 4.691; Category: Psychology, Social, 9/66 = Q1]
  • Knoll, M., Götz, M., Adriasola, E., Al-Atwi, A.A., Arenas, A., Atitsogbe, K.A., Barrett, S., Bhattacharjee, A., Blanco, N.D., Bogilović, S., Bollmann, G., Bosak, J., Bulut, C., Carter, M., Cerne, M., Chui, S., Di Marco, D., Duden, G., Elsey, V., Fujimura, M., Gatti, P., Ghislieri, C., Giessner, S., Hino, K., Hofmans, J., Jønsson, T.S., Kazimna, P., Lowe, K.P., Malagon Peren, J., Mohebbi, H., Montgomery, A., Monzani, L., Nederveen Pieterse, A., Ngoma, M., O’Shea, D., Lundsgaard Ottsen, C., Ozeren, E., Pickett, J.L., Rangkuti, A.A., Retowski, S., Sattari Ardabili, F., Shaukat, R., Silva, S.A., Šimunić, A., Steffens, N.K., Sultanova, F., Szücs, D., Tavares, S.M., Tipandjan, A., van Dick, R., Vasiljevic, D., Wong, S.I., & Zacher, H. (2021). International differences in employee silence motives: Scale validation, prevalence, and relationships with culture characteristics across 33 countries. Journal of Organizational Behavior.
  • Kunzler, A. M., Stoffers-Winterling, J., Stoll, M., Mancini, A. L., Lehmann, S., Blessin, M., Gilan, D., Helmreich, I., Hufert, F., & Lieb, K. (2021). Mental health and psychosocial support strategies in highly contagious emerging disease outbreaks of substantial public concern: A systematic scoping review. PloS one, 16(2), e0244748.
  • Wemken, G., Janurek, J., Junker, N. M., & Häusser, J. A. (2021).  The Impact of social comparisons of job demands and job control on well-being. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 13(2), 419 – 436. 10.1111/aphw.12257
  • Bracht, E. M., Keng-Highberger, F. T., Avolio, B. J., & Huang, Y. (2021). Take a ‘Selfie’: Examining How Leaders Emerge from Leader Self-awareness, Self-leadership, and Self-efficacy. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 653. Click here for free access.
  • Dreisoerner, A., Junker, N.M., & van Dick, R. (2021). The relationship among the components of self-compassion: A pilot study using a compassionate writing intervention to enhance self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 22, 21-47.
  • Kaluza, A.J., Weber, F., Van Dick, R., & Junker, N.M. (2021). When and How Health-Oriented Leadership Relates to Employee Well-Being – the Role of Expectations, Self-care, and LMX. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 51, 404-424. 
  • Schuh, S. C., Cai, Y., Kaluza, A. J., Steffens, N. K., David, E. M., & Haslam, A. (2021). Do leaders condone unethical pro-organizational employee behaviors? The complex interplay between leader organizational identification and moral disengagement. Human Resource Management.
  • Junker, N. M., Kaluza, A. J., Häusser, J. A., Mojzisch, A., van Dick, R., Knoll, M., & Demerouti, E. (2021). Does work engagement exhaust? Investigating the longitudinal relationship between work engagement and exhaustion using latent growth modeling. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 70(2), 788-815.
  • Ciampa, V. Sirowatka, M., Schuh, S.C., Fraccaroli, F., & van Dick, R. (2021). Ambivalent identification as a moderator of the link between organizational identification and counterproductive work behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 169(1), 119-134. Doi: 10.1007/s10551-019-04262-0
  • Liu, H., Bracht, E., Zhang, X-a., Bradley, B. & Van Dick, R. (2021). Creativity in non-routine jobs: The role of transformational leadership and organizational identification. Creativity and Innovation Management, 30(1), 129-143.
  • Veer, I.M., Riepenhausen, A., Zerban, M., Wackerhagen, C., Puhlmann, L.M.C., Engen, H., Köber, G., Bögemann, S.A., Weermeijer, S., Uściƚko, A., Mor, N., Marciniak, M.A, Askelund, A.D., Al-Kamel, A., Ayash, S., Barsuola, G., Bartkute-Norkuniene, V., Battaglia, S., Bobko, Y., Bölte, S., Cardone, P., Chvojková, E., Damnjanović, K., De Calheiros Velozo, J., de Thurah, L., Deza-Araujo, Y.I., Dimitrov, A., Farkas, K., Feller, C., Gazea, M., Gilan, D., Gnjidić, V., Hajduk, M., Hiekkaranta, A.P., Hofgaard, L.S., Ilen, L., Kasanova, Z., Khanpour, M., Hi Po Lau, B., Lenferink, D.B., Lindhardt, T.B., Magas, D.A., Mituniewicz, J., Moreno-López, L., Muzychka, S., Ntafouli, M., O'Leary, A., Paparella, I., Põldver, N., Rintala, A., Robak, N., Rosická, A.M., Røysamb, E., Sadeghi, S., Schneider, M., Siugzdaite, R., Stantić, M., Teixeira, A., Todorovic, A., Wan, W.W.N., van Dick, R., Lieb, K., Kleim, B., Hermans, E.J., Kobylinska, D., Hendler, T., Binder, H., Myin-Germeys, I., van LeeuwenJ.M.C., Tüscher, O., Yuen, K.S.L., Walter, H., Kalisch, R. (2021). Psycho-social factors associated with mental resilience in the Corona lockdown. Translational Psychiatry, 11, 67.


  • Monzani, L., & Van Dick, R. (2020). Positive leadership. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology.
  • Lupina-Wegener, A., Liang, S., Ullrich, J., & van Dick, R.  (2020). Multiple organizational identities and change in ambivalence: The case of a chinese acquisition in Europe. Journal of Organizational Change Management.
  • Gilan, D., Röthke, N., Blessin, M., Kunzler, A., Stoffers-Winterling, J., Müssig, M., Yuen, K. S. L., Tüscher, O., Thrul, J., Kreuter, F., Sprengholz, P., Betsch, C., Stieglitz, R. D., Lieb, K. (2020). Psychomorbidity, Resilience, and Exacerbating and Protective Factors During the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: A Systematic Literature Review and Results from the German COSMO-PANEL. Deutsches Aerzteblatt International, 117(38).
  • Grütter, J., Meyer, B., Philipp, M., Stegmann, S., & Van Dick, R. (2021). Beyond ethnic diversity: The role of teacher care for interethnic relations. Frontiers in Education 5:586709.
  • Van Dick, R. & Steffens, N.K. (2020). Wie ein Wir entsteht. Harvard Business Manager. Spezial 2021, S. 39-45. Extract
  • Avanzi, L., Perinelli, E., Vignoli, M., Junker, N. M., & Balducci, C. (2020). Unravelling work drive: A comparison between workaholism and overcommitment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 5755.
  • Tuschen-Caffier, B., Engel, J., Koch, S., Kollei, T., Bröder, A., Greve, W., Koch, I., Krahe, B., Kunde, W., Möller, J., Rief, W., Schmitt, M., Strauß, B., van Dick., R., & Wolf, O.T. (2020). Bericht des Fachkollegiums Psychologie in der Deutschen Foschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). Psychologische Rundschau, 71, 303-309.
  • Kaluza, A., Schuh, S., Kern, Xin, K., & Van Dick, R. (2020). How do leaders’ perceptions of organizational health climate shape employee exhaustion and engagement? Toward a cascading-effects model. Human Resource Management, 59, 359-377. Click here for free access
  • Haslam, C., Steffens, N.K., & Van Dick, R. (2020). Die heilsame Kraft des Wir. Gehirn & Geist, 08_2020, 2-9. Extract
  • Häusser, J. A., Junker, N. M., & van Dick, R. (2020). The how and the when of the social cure: A conceptual model of group- and individual-level mechanisms linking social identity to health and well-being. European Journal of Social Psychology, 50, 721–732.
  • Van Zyl, L. E., Roll, L. C., Stander, M. W., & Richter, S. (2020). Positive psychological coaching definitions and models: A systematic literature review. Frontiers in Psychology.
  • Junker, N.M., & Van Dick, R. (2020). Congruence in preferences and expectations of work-family role management: Operationalization and the relation with work-family balance and spousal support. Sex Roles, 82, 644-658.
  • Van Dick, R., Crawshaw, J.R., Karpf, S., Schuh, S.C., & Zhang, X.-a. (2020). Identity, importance, and their roles in how corporate social responsibility affects workplace attitudes and behavior. Journal of Business and Psychology, 35, 159-169. Doi: 10.1007/s10869-019-09619-w

  • Frenzel, S., Junker, N.M., Häusser, J.A., Haslam, S.A., & Van Dick, R. (2020). When “I” becomes “we”, even “illness” turns to “wellness”: Why group life is important for our health.  Frontiers for Young Minds, 8:30. doi: 10.3389/frym.2020.00030
  • Shemla, M., Kearney, E., Wegge, J. and Stegmann, S. (2020). Unlocking the performance potential of functionally diverse teams: The paradoxical role of leader mood. J Occup Organ Psychol. doi:10.1111/joop.12303  

  • Stegmann, S., Braun, S., Junker, N.M., & Van Dick, R. (2020). Getting older and living up to implicit followership theories: Implications for employee psychological health and job attitudes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 50, 65-81. DOI: 10.1111/jasp.12636

  • Kaluza, A., Boer, D., Buengeler, C., & Van Dick, R. (2020). Leadership Behaviour and Leader Self-Reported Well-being: A Review, Integration and Meta-Analytic Examination. Work and Stress34:1, 34-56, DOI: 10.1080/02678373.2019.1617369
    Click here for Open Access
  • Van Dick, R., & Diamond, J. (2020). Resilient aus der kollektiven Krise: Wie Organisationen von Individuen und Nationen lernen können. OrganisationsEntwicklung 1/20, 46-51. Extract (© Handelsblatt Fachmedien GmbH)


  • Junker, N. M., van Dick, R. Avanzi, L., Häusser, J. A., & Mojzisch, A. (2019). Exploring the mechanisms underlying the social identity – (ill-)health link: Experimental and longitudinal evidence. British Journal of Social Psychology, 58, 991-1007.
  • Ciampa, V., Steffens, N.K., Schuh, S.C., Fraccaroli, F., & van Dick, R. (2019). Identity and Stress: An application of the expanded model of organizational identification in predicting strain at work. Work & Stress , 33, 351-365.
  • Van Dick, R., Fink, L., Steffens, N.K., Peters, K., & Haslam, S.A. (2019). Attributions of leaders’ charisma increase after their death: the mediating role of identity leadership and identity fusion. Leadership, 15(5), 576-589. DOI: 10.1177/1742715018807042
  • Bodla, A.A., Tang, N., van Dick, R., & Mir U.R. (2019). Authoritarian leadership, organizational citizenship behavior, and organizational deviance: Curvilinear Relationships. Leadership  & Organization Development Journal, 40, 583-599. DOI 10.1108/LODJ-08-2018-0313
  • Monzani, L., Kozusnik, M.W., Ripoll, P., & Van Dick, R. (2019). Coping in the final frontier: An intervention to reduce spaceflight-induced stress. Psychologica, 62, 57-77. Online at:
  • Kauff, M., Stegmann, S., van Dick, R., Beierlein, C., & Christ, O. (2019). Measuring Beliefs in the Instrumentality of Ethnic Diversity – Development and Validation of the Pro-Diversity Beliefs Scale (PDBS). Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 22, 494-510.
  • Goldschmidt, I., Van Dick, R., Jacobi, C., Junge, N., Pfister, E. Richter, N., & Baumann, U. (2019). Impact of immunosuppression on executive functioning after pediatric liver transplantation. An observational cohort study. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 68, 480-487. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000002274
  • Mayer, K., Junge, N., Goldschmidt, I., Leiskau, C., Becker, T., Lehner, F., Richter, N., van Dick, R., Baumann, U., & Pfister, E.-D. (2019). Psychosocial outcomes and resilience after paediatric liver transplantation in young adults. Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, 43, 150-160.
  • Wessels, C., Schippers, M. C., Stegmann, S., Bakker, A. B., van Baalen, P. J., & Proper, K. I. (2019). Fostering Flexibility in the New World of Work: A Model of Time-Spatial Job Crafting. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(505). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00505
  • Monzani, L., Knoll, M., Giessner, S., Van Dick, R., & Peiró, J.M. (2019). Between a rock and hard place: Combined effects of authentic leadership, organizational identification, and team prototypicality on managerial prohibitive voice. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 22, e2. doi: 10.1017/sjp.2019.1
  • Vahle-Hinz, T., Baethge, A., & Van Dick, R. (2019). Beyond one work day? A daily diary study on causal and reverse effects between experienced workplace incivility and behaving rude towards others. European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology, 28, 272-285, DOI: 10.1080/1359432X.2019.1576633
  • Braun, S., Hernandez Bark, A., Kirchner, A., Stegmann, S., & Van Dick, R. (2019). Emails from the boss – curse or blessing? Relations between communication channels, leader evaluation and employees’ attitudes. International Journal of Business Communication, 56, 50-81.


  • Kunzler, A.M., Chmitorz, A., Bagusat, C., Kaluza, A.J., Hoffmann, I., Schäfer, M., Quiring, O., Rigotti, T., Kalisch, R., Tüscher, O., Franke, A.G., van Dick, R., Lieb, K. (2018). Construct validity and population-based norms of the German Brief Resilience Scale (BRS). European Journal of Health Psychology, 25(3), 107-117.
  • Van Dick, R., Lemoine, J.E., Steffens, N.K., Kerschreiter, R., Akfirat, S.A., Avanzi, L., Dumont, K., Epitropaki, O., Fransen, K., Giessner, S., Gonzáles, R., Kark, R., Lipponen, J., Markovits, Y., Monzani, L., Orosz, G., Pandey, D., Roland-Lévy, C., Schuh, S.C., Sekiguchi, T., Song, L.J., Stouten, J., Tatachari, S., Valdenegro, D., van Bunderen, L., Vörös, V., Wong, S.I., Zhang, X-a., & Haslam, S.A. (2018). Identity leadership going global: Validation of the Identity Leadership Inventory across 20 countries. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 91, 697-728. DOI: 10.1111/joop.12223
  • Avanzi, L., Albertini, S., Fraccaroli, F., Sarchielli, G., De Plato, G., & van Dick, R. (2018). Exploring identity dynamics from a combined social exchange and social identity perspective. International Public Management Journal, 21, 677-702.
  • Bracht, E.M., Junker, N.M., & Van Dick, R. (2018). Exploring the social context of self-leadership—Self-Leadership-Culture. Journal of Theoretical Social Psychology, 2, 119-130.
  • Bänke, A.-K., Schuster, C. & van Dick, R. (2018). Change Leadership – Warum es sich auszahlt…OrganisationsEntwicklung, 3/18, 98-100.
  • Baethge, A., Vahle-Hinz, T., Schulte-Braucks, J., & Van Dick, R. (2018). A Matter of Time? Challenging and hindering effects of time pressure on work engagement. Work & Stress, 32, 228-247.
  • Zwettler, C., Reiß, N., Rohrmann, S., Warnecke, I., Luka-Krausgrill, U. & van Dick, R. (2018). The relation between social identity and exam anxiety in university students. Health Psychology Open, 5, 1-7.
  • Schlögel, U, Stegmann, S., Maedche, A. & Van Dick, R. (2018). Age stereotypes in distributed software development: The impact of national and organizational culture on age-related performance expectations. Information and Software Technology, 97, 146-162.
  • Schuh, S.C., Zhang, X-a., Tian, P., Morgeson, F. & Van Dick, R. (2018). Are you really doing good things in your boss’s eyes? Interactive effects of subordinate innovative behavior and leader-member-exchange on supervisor ratings of job performance. Human Resource Management, 57, 397-409.  DOI: 10.1002/hrm.21851
  • Schlögel, U., Stegmann, S., Maedche, A. & Van Dick, R. (2018). Age stereotypes in agile software development – an empirical study on performance expectations. Information Technology & People, 31, 41-62. DOI:10.1108/ITP-07-2015-0186.
  • Van Dick, R., Ciampa, V., & Liang, S. (2018). Shared identity in organizational stress and change. Current Opinion in Psychology, 23, 20-25.
  • Avanzi, L., Fraccaroli, F., Castelli, L., Marcionetti, J., Crescentini, A., Balducci, C., & Van Dick, R. (2018). How to mobilize social support against workload and burnout: The role of organizational Identification. Teaching and Teacher Education, 69, 154-167.


  • Steffens, N.K., Peters, K., Haslam, S.A., & Van Dick, R. (2017). Dying for Charisma: Human inspirational appeal increases post-mortem. Leadership Quarterly, 28, 530-542. (discussed in Spektrum der Wissenschaften, November 2017:
  • Steffens, N.K., Haslam, S.A., Schuh, S.C., Jetten, J., & Van Dick, R. (2017). A meta-analytic review of social identification and health in organizational contexts. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 21, 305-335. doi: 10.1177/1088868316656701
  • Braun, S., Stegmann, S., Hernandez Bark, A., Junker, N.M., & Van Dick, R. (2017). Think manager – think male, think follower – think female: Gender bias in implicit followership theories. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 47, 377-388. DOI: 10.1111/jasp.12445
  • Aydin, A., Landmann, H., Klocke, U. & van Dick, R. (2017). Fremder oder Freund? Unter welchen Umständen sich der Kontakt zwischen Deutschen und Geflüchteten positiv auf das Zusammenleben auswirken kann. In-Mind. The Inquisitive Mind Magazin, 3/2017.
  • Landmann, H., Aydin, A., , van Dick, R., & Klocke, U. (2017). Die Kontakthypothese: Wie Kontakt Vorurteile reduzieren und die Integration Geflüchteter fördern kann. In-Mind. The Inquisitive Mind Magazin, 3/2017. Online at:
  • Van Dick, R., Ketturat, C., Häusser, J.A., & Mojzisch, A. (2017). Two sides of the same coin and two routes for improvement: Integrating resilience and the social identity approach to well-being and ill-health. Health Psychology Open, 4, 1-6.
  • Van Dick, R. & Gross, M. (2017). „You’ve got M@il“ Was die E-Mail-Flut für Unternehmen bedeutet und wie Mitarbeiter eine produktive E-Mail-Kultur schaffen. OrganisationsEntwicklung 3/17, 72-78.
  • Wenzler, S. Hagen, M., Tarvainen, M.P., Hilke, M., Ghirmai, N., Huthmacher, A.-C., Trettin, M., van Dick, R., Reif, A., & Oertel-Knöchel, V. (2017). Intensified emotion perception is associated with deficits in social skills and increased physiological arousal in depressed subjects. Psychiatry Research, 253, 303-310.
  • Markovits, Y., Boer, D., Gerbers, S., & Van Dick, R. (2017). The impact of a lasting economic crisis on employee attitudes: A follow-up and extension. Athens Journal of Business and Economics, 3, 85-99.


  • Hernandez Bark, A., Escartin, J., Schuh, S.C., & Van Dick, R. (2016). Who Leads More and Why? A Mediation Model from Gender to Leadership Role Occupancy. Journal of Business Ethics, 139, 473-483. DOI 10.1007/s10551-015-2642-0
  • Schuh, S. C., Van Quaquebeke, N., Göritz, A., Xin, K. R., De Cremer, D., & Van Dick, R. (2016). Mixed feelings, mixed blessing? How ambivalence in organizational identification relates to employees’ regulatory focus and citizenship behaviors. Human Relations, 69, 2224-2249. DOI: 10.1177/0018726716639117
  • March, E., Van Dick, R., & Hernandez Bark, A. (2016). Current prescriptions of men and women in differing occupational gender roles. Journal of Gender Studies25, 681-692. doi: 10.1080/09589236.2015.1090303
  • Wenzler, S., Levine, S., Van Dick, R., Oertel-Knöchel, V., & Aviezer, H. (2016). Beyond pleasure and pain: Observations on real-life facial expressions during extreme emotions. Emotion16, 807-814.
  • Junker, N.M., Stegmann, S., Braun, S., & Van Dick, R. (2016). The ideal and the counter-ideal follower –Advancing implicit followership theories. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal37, 1205 – 1222.
  • Schlögel, U, Stegmann, S., Maedche, A. & Van Dick, R. (2016). Reducing age stereotypes in software development: The effects of awareness- and cooperation-based diversity interventions. Journal of Systems and Software, 121, 1-15.
  • Van Dick, R., & Kerschreiter, R. (2016). The social identity approach to effective leadership: An overview and some ideas on cross-cultural generalizability. Frontiers in Business Research in China. 10, 363–384. DOI 10.3868/s070-005-016-0013-3
  • Van Dick, R., Drzensky, F. & Heinz, M. (2016). Goodbye or Identify: Detrimental Effects of Downsizing on Identification and Survivor Performance. Front. Psychol. 7:771. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00771
  • Tavares, S., Van Knippenberg, D., & Van Dick, R. (2016). Organizational Identification and “Currencies of Exchange”: Integrating Social Identity and Social Exchange Perspectives. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 46, 34-45.
  • Ketturat, C., Frisch, J.U., Ullrich, J., Häusser, J.A., Van Dick, R., & Mojzisch, A. (2016). Disaggregating within- and between-person effects of social identification on subjective and endocrinological stress reactions in a real-life stress situation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42, 147-160. DOI: 10.1177/0146167215616804
  • Monzani, L., Braun, S., & Van Dick, R. (2016). It takes two (or three) to tango: The interactive effect of authentic leadership and organizational identification on employee silence intentions. Zeitschrift fuer Personalforschung/ German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management, 30, 246-266.


  • Lupina-Wegener, A., Schneider, S.C., & Van Dick, R. (2015). The role of outgroups in constructing a shared identity: a longitudinal study of a subsidiary merger in Mexico. Management International Review, 55, 677-705.  doi:10.1007/s11575-015-0247-6
  • Zhang, X-a., Li, N., Ullrich, J., & Van Dick, R. (2015). Getting everyone on board: The effect of differentiated transformational leadership by CEOs on top management team effectiveness and leader-rated firm performance. Journal of Management, 41, 1898-1933.
  • Avanzi, L., Schuh, S., Fraccaroli, F., & van Dick, R. (2015). Why does organizational identification relate to reduced employee burnout? The mediating influence of social support and collective efficacy. Work & Stress, 29, 1–10.
  • Goldschmidt, I., Migal, K., Rückert, N., Van Dick, R., Pfister, E.D., Becker, T., Richter, N. Lehner, F., & Baumann, U. (2015). Personal decision making processes for living related liver transplantation in children. Liver Transplantation21, 195-203.
  • Steffens, N.K., Schuh, S.C., Haslam, S.A., Perez, A., & Van Dick, R. (2015). Being “of the group” or “for the group”: How followership is shaped by leaders’ prototypicality and group identification. European Journal of Social Psychology45, 180-190. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2088
  • Frisch, J. U., Häusser, J. A., van Dick, R., & Mojzisch, A. (2015). The social dimension of stress: Experimental manipulations of social support and social identity in the Trier Social Stress Test. Journal of Visualized Experiments, (105), e53101, doi:10.3791/53101.
  • Van Dick, R. & Stegmann, S. (2015). Sinnvolle Arbeit ist identitätsstiftend – Zur Bedeutung der Sozialen Identifikation als Wirkmechanismus zwischen Bedeutsamkeit der Aufgabe und Arbeitseinstellungen. Arbeit. Zeitschrift für Arbeitsforschung, Arbeitsgestaltung und Arbeitspolitik, 24, 49-65. Doi: 10.1515/arbeit-2016-0005



  • Avanzi, L., Fraccaroli, F., Sarchielli, G., Ullrich, J., & van Dick, R. (2014). Staying or leaving: A combined social identity and social exchange approach to predicting employee turnover intentions. International Journal of Performance and Productivity Management, 66, 272-289. doi: 10.1108/IJPPM-02-2013-0028
  • Crawshaw, J.R., Van Dick, R., & Boodhoo, Y. (2014). Corporate social responsibility and organizational commitment: The moderating role of individuals’ attitudes to CSR. Politische Psychologie/Journal of Political Psychology, 3, 38-50
  • Frisch, J.U., Häusser, J.A., Van Dick, R., & Mojzisch, A. (2014). Making support work: The interplay between social support and social identity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55, 154-161.
  • Hernandez Bark, A., Escartin, J., & Van Dick, R. (2014). Gender and leadership in Spain: A systematic review of some key aspects. Sex Roles, 70, 522-537.
  • Junker, N.M., & Van Dick, R. (2014). Implicit theories in applied organizational settings: A systematic review and research agenda. The Leadership Quarterly, 25, 1154-1173.  doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.09.002
  • Kuchenbrandt, D., Van Dick, R., Koschate, M., & Bornewasser, M. (2014). More than music! A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis in German-Polish music encounters. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2013.11.008
  • Lupina-Wegener, A., Drzensky, F., Ullrich, J., & Van Dick, R. (2014). Focusing on the bright tomorrow? A longitudinal study of organizational identification and projected continuity in a corporate merger. British Journal of Social Psychology, 53, 752-772.
  • Markovits, Y., Boer, D., & Van Dick, R. (2014). Economic crisis and the employee: The effects of economic crisis on employee job satisfaction, commitment, and self-regulation. European Management Journal, 32, 413-422.
  • Monzani, L., Ripoll, P., Peiro, J.M., & Van Dick, R. (2014). Loafing in the digital age: The role of computer mediated communication in the relation between perceived loafing and group affective outcomes. Computers in Human Behavior, 33, 279-285. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.01.013
  • Opitz, L., Kosfeld, M., & Van Dick, R. (2014). Who shall I trust? Trust as a mediator between identity salience and cooperative behavior. Schmalenbachs Business Review, SI 5/14, 50-64.
  • Schuh, S.C., Hernandez Bark, A., van Quaquebeke, N., Hossiep, R., Frieg, P., & Van Dick, R. (2014)
    Gender differences in leadership role occupancy: The mediating role of power motivation. Journal of Business Ethics, 120, 363-379. doi: 10.1007/s10551-013-1663-9
  • Steffens, N.K., Haslam, S.A., Kerschreiter, R., Schuh, S.C., & Van Dick, R. (2014). Leaders enhance team members’ health and well-being by crafting social identity. Zeitschrift fuer Personalforschung/ German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management, 28, 173-194. Hier zum Volltext
  • Van Dick, R. & Groß, M. (2014). Gesundheitsfalle Überidentifikation: Gut gemeint bedeutet nicht gut gemacht. Personal Quarterly, 4/14, 34-38.
  • Van Quaquebeke, N., Graf, M.M., Kerschreiter, R., Schuh, S.C., & Van Dick, R. (2014). Ideal- and counter-ideal values as two distinct forces: Exploring a gap in organizational value research. International Journal of Management Reviews, 16, 211-225.


  • Wolff, M., Rohrmann, S. & van Dick, R. (2013). Quantifying the effects of a resocialization project for prisoners – The resocialization project “MS Carmen”. British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 14, 83-92.
  • Knoll, M., & Van Dick, R. (2013). Authenticity, employee silence, prohibitive voice, and the moderating role of organizational identification. Journal of Positive Psychology, 8, 346-360. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2013.804113
  • Hämmelmann, A., & Van Dick, R. (2013). Entwickeln im Team – Effekte für den Einzelnen: Eine Evaluation von Teamentwicklungsmaßnahmen [Team building – individual effects: An evaluation of a team building intervention]. Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung, 44, 221-238. doi: 10.1007/s11612-013-0207-1
  • Stegmann, S., & van Dick, R. (2013). “Diversität ist gut, oder?” Die unterschiedlichen Arten, wie sich Menschen auf Vielfalt in Gruppen einlassen, und welche Effekte diese haben. Report Psychologie, 38(4), 153-161.
  • Escartin, J., Ullrich, J., Zapf, D., Schlüter, E., & Van Dick, R. (2013). Individual and group level effects of social identification on workplace bullying. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22, 182-193. doi: 10.1080/1359432X.2011.647407
  • Knoll, M., & Van Dick, R. (2013). Do I hear the whistle? A first attempt to measure four forms of employee silence and their correlates. Journal of Business Ethics, 113, 349-362. doi: 10.1007/s10551-012-1308-4
  • Becker, T.F., Ullrich, J., & Van Dick, R. (2013). Within-person variation in affective commitment to teams: Where it comes from and why it matters. Human Resource Management Review, 23, 131-147. doi: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2012.07.006
  • Boer, D., & Fischer, R. (2013). How and when do personal values guide our attitudes and sociality? Explaining cross-cultural variability in attitude-value linkages. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 1113-1147. doi: 10.1037/a0031347


  • Kovjanic, S., Schuh, SC., Jonas, K., Van Quaquebeke, N., & Van Dick, R. (2012). How do transformational leaders foster positive employee outcomes? A self-determination analysis of employees’ needs as mediating links. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33, 1031-1052. doi: 10.1002/job.1771
  • Koschate, M.J., Oethinger, S., Kuchenbrandt, D., & Van Dick, R. (2012). Is an outgroup member in need a friend indeed? Personal and task-oriented contact as predictors of intergroup prosocial behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology42, 717728. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1879
  • Schuh, S.C., Zhang, X.-a., Tian, P. (2012). For the good or the bad? Interactive effects of transformational leadership with moral and authoritarian leadership behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics.
  • Avanzi, L., van Dick, R., Fraccaroli, F., & Sarchielli, G. (2012). The downside of organizational identification: Relationships between identification, workaholism and well-being. Work & Stress26, 289-307. doi: 10.1080/02678373.2012.712291
  • Schuh, S.C., Egold, N.W., & Van Dick, R. (2012). Towards understanding the role of organizational identification in service settings: A multilevel, multisource study. European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology, 21, 547-574. doi: 10.1080/1359432X.2011.578391
  • Boer, D., Fischer, R., Tekman, H. G., Abubakar, A. A., Njenga, J., & Zenger, M. (2012). Young people’s topography of musical functions: Personal, social and cultural experiences with music across genders and six cultures. International Journal of Psychology, 47(5), 355-369. doi:10.1080/00207594.2012.656128
  • Boer, D., & Fischer, R. (2012). Towards a holistic picture of functions of music: A culturally decentred qualitative approach. Psychology of Music, 40, 179-200. doi: 10.1177/0305735610381885
  • Ullrich, J., & Schlüter, E. (2012). Detecting nasty data with simple plots of complex models: Comment on Brandt (2011). Psychological Science, 23,824-825.
  • Häusser, J.A., Kattenstroth, M., van Dick, R., & Mojzisch, A. (2012). ‘We’ are not stressed. Social identity in groups buffers neuroendocrine stress reactions. Journal of Experimental Social Pychology48, 973-977. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.02.020
  • Schuh, S.C., Zhang, X.-A., Egold, N.W., Graf, M.M., Pandey, D., & Van Dick, R. (2012). Leader and follower organizational identification: The mediating role of leader behavior and implications for follower OCB. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology85, 421-432. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8325.2011.02044.x
  • Stegmann, S., Roberge, M.-E., & Van Dick, R. (2012). Getting tuned in to those who are different: The role of empathy as mediator between diversity and performance. Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft, 82, 19-44.
  • Graf, M.M.*, Schuh, S.C.*, Van Quaquebeke, N., & Van Dick, R. (2012). The relationship between leaders’ group oriented values and follower identification with and endorsement of leaders: The moderating role of leaders’ group membership. Journal of Business Ethics, 161, 301-311. *Equal contribution doi: 10.1007/s10551-011-0997-4
  • Wegge, J., Schuh, S.C., & Van Dick, R. (2012). I feel bad – We feel good!? Emotions as a driver for personal and organizational identity and organizational identification as a resource for serving unfriendly customers. Stress and Health, 28, 123-136. doi: 10.1002/smi.1412
  • Price, D., & van Dick, R. (2012). Identity and Change: Recent developments and future directions. Journal of Change Management12, 7-11.
  • Drzensky, F., Egold, N.W., & van Dick, R. (2012). Ready for a change? A longitudinal study of antecedents, consequences and contingencies of readiness for change. Journal of Change Management12, 95-111. doi: 10.1080/14697017.2011.652377
  • Crawshaw, J.R., Van Dick, R., & Brodbeck, F.C. (2012). Opportunity, fair process and relationship value: Career development as a driver of proactive behavior. Human Resource Management Journal22, 4-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-8583.2011.00169.x


  • Graf, M.M., Van Quaquebeke, N., & Van Dick, R. (2011). Two independent value orientations: Ideal- and counter-ideal leader values and their impact on followers’ respect for and identification with their leaders. Journal of Business Ethics, 104, 185-195. doi. 10.1007/s10551-011-0897-7
  • Koschate, M.J., & Van Dick, R. (2011). A multilevel test of Allport’s contact conditions. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14, 769–787. doi: 10.1177/1368430211399602
  • Junker, N.M., Schyns, B., Van Dick, R., & Scheurer, S. (2011). Die Bedeutung der Führungskräfte-Kategorisierung für Commitment, Arbeitszufriedenheit und Wohlbefinden unter Berücksichtigung der Geschlechterrollentheorie. Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 55, 171-179. doi: 10.1026/0932-4089/a000055
  • Boer, D., Fischer, R., Strack, M., Bond, M. H., Lo, E. & Lam, J. (2011). How shared preferences in music create bonds between people: Values as the missing Link. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 37, 1159-1171. DOI:10.1177/0146167211407521
  • Adesokan, A.A., Ullrich, J., Van Dick, R., & Tropp, L. (2011). Diversity beliefs as a moderator of the contact-prejudice relationship. Social Psychology, 42, 271-278. doi: 10.1027/1864-9335/a000058
  • Furtmueller. E., van Dick, R. & Wilderom, C. (2011). On the illusion of organizational commitment among finance professionals. Team Performance Management, 17, 255-278. doi: 10.1108/13527591111159009
  • Fischer, R. & Boer, D. (2011). What is more important for national well-being: Money or autonomy? A meta-analysis of well-being, burnout and anxiety across 63 societies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 164-184. DOI: 10.1037/a0023663
  • Wittchen, M., van Dick, R., & Hertel, G. (2011). Motivated information processing during intergroup competition: A model of intergroup competition effects on individual effort. Organizational Psychology Review, 1, 257-272. doi: 10.1177/2041386611398166
  • Furtmueller, E., van Dick, R. & Wilderom, C. (2011). Service behavior of highly effective financial consultants. Journal of Service Management, 22, 317-343.
  • Giessner, S.R., Ullrich, J., & Van Dick, R. (2011). Social identity and corporate mergers. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5, 333–345. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2011.00359.x
  • Giessner, S.R., Ullrich, J., & Van Dick, R. (2011). Teaching & Learning Guide for: Social identity and corporate mergers. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5, 500-504.
  • Lupina-Wegener, A., Schneider, S.C., & Van Dick, R. (2011). Different experiences of socio-cultural integration: A European merger in Mexico. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 24, 65 – 89. doi: 10.1108/09534811111102292
  • DiDonato, T.E., Ullrich, J., Krueger, J.I. (2011). Social perception as induction and inference: An integrative model of intergroup differentiation, ingroup favoritism, and differential accuracy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 66-83.


  • Furtmueller, E., Wilderom, C., & Van Dick, R. (2010). Sustainable e-recruiting portals: how to motivate applicants to stay connected throughout their careers? International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction, 6, 1-20. doi: 10.4018/jthi.2010070101
  • Wegge, J., Van Dick, R., & Von Bernstorff, C. (2010). Emotional dissonance in call center work: A closer inspection of correlates and emotional underpinnings. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25 , 596-619 doi: 10.1108/02683941011056950
  • Van Dick, R., & Schuh, S.C. (2010). My boss’ group is my group: Experimental evidence for the leader-follower identity transfer. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31, 551-563. doi: 10.1108/01437731011070032
  • Roberge, M.-E., & Van Dick, R., (2010). Managing workplace diversity: When and how the diversity dividend pays off. Human Resource Management Review, 20, 295 – 308. doi: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2009.09.002
  • Markovits, Y., Davis, A.J., Fay, D., & Van Dick, R. (2010). The link between job satisfaction and organizational commitment: Differences between public and private sector employees. International Public Management Journal, 13, 177 – 196. doi: 10.1080/10967491003756682
  • Ullrich, J., & Krueger, J.I. (2010). Interpersonal liking from bivariate attitude similarity. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 214-221.
  • Van Quaquebeke, N., Kerschreiter, R., Buxton, A.E., & Van Dick, R. (2010). Two lighthouses to navigate – Effects of ideal and counter-ideal values on follower identification and satisfaction. Journal of Business Ethics, 93, 293-305. doi: 10.1007/s10551-009-0222-x
  • Stegmann, S., van Dick, R., Ullrich, J., Charalambous, J., Menzel, B., Egold, N., Wu, T. T. C. (2010). Der Work Design Questionnaire – Vorstellung und erste Validierung einer deutschen Version. Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 54, 1-28. doi: 10.1026/0932-4089/a000002
  • Fleischhauer, M., Enge, S., Brocke, B., Ullrich, J., Strobel, A., & Strobel, A. (2010). Same or different? Clarifying the relationship of need for cognition to personality and intelligence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 82-96.


  • Van Dick, R., Stellmacher, J., Wagner, U., & Lemmer, G., & Tissington, P.A. (2009). Group membership salience and performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24, 609-626. doi: 10.1108/02683940910989011
  • Egold, N., Van Dick, R. & Zapf, D. (2009). Personale und organisationale Prädiktoren von Kundenorientierung und Kundenzufriedenheit: Eine Untersuchung im therapeutischen Dienstleistungsbereich. [Personal and organizational predictors of customer orientation and customer satisfaction: A study in health-care services sector] Zeitschrift für Personalpsychologie, 8, 180-190. doi: 10.1026/1617-6391.8.4.180
  • Hirst, G., Van Dick, R., & Van Knippenberg, D. (2009). A social identity perspective on leadership and employee creativity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 963-982. doi: 10.1002/job.600
  • Shnabel, N., Nadler, A., Ullrich, J., & Dovidio, J.F., & Carmi, D. (2009). Promoting reconciliation through the satisfaction of the emotional needs of victimized and perpetrating group members: The Needs-Based Model of Reconciliation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 1021-1030.
  • Harvey, S. T., Boer, D., Meyer, L. H., & Evans, I. M. (2009). Updating a meta-analysis of intervention research with challenging behaviour: Treatment validity and standards of practice. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 34, 67-80. DOI:10.1080/13668250802690922
  • Van Dick, R., Tissington, P.A., & Hertel, G. (2009). Do many hands make light work? How to overcome social loafing and gain motivation in work teams. European Business Review, 21, 233-245. doi: 10.1108/09555340910956621
  • Van Dijk, R.L., & Van Dick, R. (2009). Navigating organizational change: Change leaders, employee resistance and work-based identities. Journal of Change Management, 9, 143-163. doi: 10.1080/14697010902879087
  • Ullrich, J. (2009). Reconsidering the ‘relative’ in relative ingroup   prototypicality. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 299-310.
  • Wieseke, J., Ahearne, M., Lam, S.K., & Van Dick, R. (2009). The role of leaders in internal marketing. Journal of Marketing, 73, 123-145. doi: 10.1509/jmkg.73.2.123
  • Ullrich, J., Christ, O., & Van Dick, R. (2009). Substitutes for procedural fairness: Prototypical leaders are endorsed whether they are fair or not. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 235-244. doi: 10.1037/a0012936


  • Shnabel, N., Nadler, A., Canetti-Nisim, D., Ullrich, J.,  (2008). The role of acceptance and empowerment in promoting reconciliation from the perspective of the Needs-Based Model. Social Issues and Social Policy Review, 2, 159-186.
  • Markovits, Y., Ullrich, J., Van Dick, R., & Davis, A.J. (2008). Regulatory foci and organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73, 485-489. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2008.09.004
  • Ullrich, J., Schermelleh-Engel, K., & Böttcher, B. (2008). The moderator effect that wasn´t there: Statistical problems in ambivalence research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 774-794.
  • Wieseke, J., Lee, N., Broderick, A., Dawson, J.F., & Van Dick, R. (2008). Multilevel analyses in marketing and management research: Status quo and methodological suggestions. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 16, 321-339.
  • Van Dick, R., Van Knippenberg, D., Hägele, S., Guillaume, Y.R.F., & Brodbeck, F. (2008). Group diversity and group identification: The moderating role of diversity beliefs. Human Relations, 61, 1463-1492. doi: 10.1177/0018726708095711
  • Podsiadlowski, A., Boer, D., & Vauclair, C.-M. (2008). Workplace Diversity in New Zealand: End-Report for the Workplace Group of the Department of Labour (DoL). Wellington: Victoria University, Centre for Applied Cross-cultural Research.
  • Dormann, C., Sonnentag, S., & Van Dick, R. (2008). Notwendigkeit des internationalen Publizierens angewandter psychologier Forschung. [The necessity of publishing applied research internationally] Psychologische Rundschau, 59, 169-174. doi: 10.1026/0033-3042.59.3.169
  • Van Dick, R., Van Knippenberg, D., Kerschreiter, R., Hertel, G., & Wieseke, J. (2008). Interactive effects of  work group and organizational identitification on job satisfaction and extra-role behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72, 388-399. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2007.11.009
  • Pettigrew, T.F., Christ, O., Wagner, U., Meertens, R.W., Van Dick, R., & Zick, A. (2008). Relative deprivation and prejudice. Journal of Social Issues, 64, 385-401. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2008.00567.x


  • Wieseke, J., Ullrich, J., Christ, O., & van Dick, R. (2007). Organizational identification as a determinant of customer orientation in service organizations. Marketing Letters, 18, 265-278. doi: 10.1007/s11002-007-9021-2
  • Ullrich, J., & van Dick, R. (2007). The group psychology of mergers & acquisitions: Lessons from the Social Identity Approach. In C.L. Cooper & S. Finkelstein (Eds.), Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions (Vol. 6, pp. 1-15). doi: 10.1016/S1479-361X(07)06001-2
  • Ullrich, J., & Cohrs, J.C. (2007). Terrorism salience increases system justification: Experimental evidence. Social Justice Research, 20, 117-139.
  • Markovits, Y., Davis, A., & Van Dick, R. (2007). Organizational commitment profiles and job satisfaction among Greek public and private sector employees. International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 7, 77-99. doi: 10.1177/1470595807075180
  • Ullrich, J., Wieseke, J., Christ, O., Schulze, J., & Van Dick, R. (2007). The Identity-Matching Principle: Corporate and Organizational Identification in a Franchising System. British Journal of Management, 18, S29-S44. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8551.2007.00524.x
  • Van Dick, R., Hirst, G., Grojean, M.W., & Wieseke, J. (2007). Relationships between leader and follower organizational identification and implications for follower attitudes and behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80, 133-150. doi: 10.1348/096317905X71831
  • Wegge, J., Schmidt, K.-H., Parkes, C.L., & Van Dick, R. (2007). ‘Taking a sickie’: Job satisfaction and job involvement as interactive predictors of absenteeism. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80, 77-89. doi: 10.1348/096317906X99371
  • Van Knippenberg, D., Van Dick, R., & Tavares, S. (2007). Social identity and social exchange: Identification, organizational and supervisor support, and withdrawal from the job. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 457-477. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00168.x


  • Richter, A., West, M.A., Van Dick, R., & Dawson, J.F. (2006). Boundary spanners’ identification, intergroup contact and effective intergroup relations. Academy of Management Journal, 49, 1252-1269. doi: 10.5465/AMJ.2006.23478720
  • Van Dick, R., Grojean, M.W., Christ, O., & Wieseke, J. (2006). Identity and the extra-mile: Relationships between organizational identification and organizational citizenship behavior. British Journal of Management, 17, 283-301. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8551.2006.00520.x
  • Ullrich, J., Christ, O., & Schlüter, E. (2006). Merging on Mayday: Subgroup and superordinate identification as joint moderators of threat effects in the context of European Union’s expansion. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 857-876.
  • Wegge, J., Van Dick, R., Fisher, G.K., & West, M.A. (2006). Emotions in call center work: A test of the basic assumptions of Affective Events Theory. British Journal of Management, 17, 237-254.
  • Meyer, J.P., Becker, T.E., & Van Dick, R. (2006). Social identities and commitments at work: Toward and integrative model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 665-683. doi: 10.1002/job.383
  • Riketta, M., Van Dick, R., & Rousseau, D. (2006). Employee attachment in the short and long run: Antecedents of situated and deep structure identification. Zeitschrift für Personalpsychologie5, 85-93. doi: 10.1026/1617-6391.5.3.85
  • Van Dick, R., Becker, T.E., & Meyer, J.P. (2006). Commitment and Identification: Forms, foci, and future. Introduction and overview. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 545-548.
  • Harvey, S. T., Boer, D., Meyer, L. H., & Evans, I. M. (2006). A meta-analysis of the effects of treatment on challenging behaviour. Technical Report, Ministry of Education, Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Van Dick, R., Ullrich, J. & Tissington, P.A. (2006). Working under a black cloud: How to sustain organizational identification after a merger. British Journal of Management, 17, S69-S79. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8551.2006.00479.x
  • Van Dick, R., & Riketta, M. (2006). Bindung von Mitarbeitern an Organisationen. Editorial zum Themenheft. Zeitschrift für Personalpsychologie5, 83-84.
  • Wegge, J., Van Dick, R., Fisher, G.K., Wecking, C., & Moltzen, K. (2006). Work motivation and well-being in call center work: Impact of job design and organizational identification. Work and Stress, 20, 60-83. doi: 10.1080/02678370600655553


  • Van Dick, R., Wagner, U., Stellmacher, J., Christ, O., & Tissington, P.A. (2005). To be(long) or not to be(long): Identification in organizational contexts. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 131, 189-218. doi: 10.3200/MONO.131.3.189-218
  • Gautam, T., Van Dick, R., Wagner, U., Upadhyay, N., & Davis, A.J. (2005). Organizational citizenship behavior and organizational commitment in Nepal. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 8, 305-314. doi:10.1111/j.1467-839X.2005.00172.x
  • Riketta, M. & Van Dick, R. (2005). Foci of attachment in organizations: A meta-analysis comparison of the strength and correlates of work-group versus organizational commitment and identification. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67, 490-510.
  • Ullrich, J., Wieseke, J., & Van Dick, R. (2005). Continuity and change in mergers and acquisitions: A social identity case study of a German industrial merger. Journal of Management Studies, 42, 1549-1569. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2005.00556.x/
  • Van Dick, R., Wagner, U., Stellmacher, J. & Christ, O. (2005). Mehrebenenanalysen in der Organisationspsychologie: Ein Plädoyer und ein Beispiel. [Multilevel analyses in organizational psychology] Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 49, 27-34. doi: 10.1026/0932-4089.49.1.27
  • Van Dick, R., Wagner, U., Stellmacher, J., & Christ, O. (2005). Category salience and organisational identification. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78, 273-285. doi: 10.1348/096317905X25779


  • Gautam, T., Van Dick, R. & Wagner, U. (2004). Organizational identification and organizational commitment: Distinct aspects of two related concepts. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 7, 301-315.doi: 10.1111/j.1467-839X.2004.00150.x
  • Labuhn, A.S., Wagner, U., Van Dick, R., & Christ, O. (2004). Determinanten zivilcouragierten Verhaltens: Eine Fragebogenstudie [Determinants of civil courage: Results of a questionnaire study]. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 35, 93-103. doi: 10.1024/0044-3514.35.2.93
  • Van Dick, R. (2004). My job is my castle: Identification in organizational contexts. In: C.L. Cooper & I.T. Robertson (Eds.) International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Vol. 19, pp. 171-203). Chichester: Wiley. doi: 10.1002/0470013311.ch6
  • Van Dick, R. Christ, O., Stellmacher, J., Wagner, U., Ahlswede, O., Grubba, C., Hauptmeier, M., Höhfeld, C., Moltzen, K. , & Tissington, P.A. (2004). Should I stay or should I go? Explaining turnover intentions with organizational identification and job satisfaction.  British Journal of Management, 15, 351-360. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8551.2004.00424.x
  • Van Dick, R., Wagner, U., & Lemmer, G. (2004). The winds of change. Multiple identifications in the case of organizational mergers. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 13, 121-138.
  • Van Dick, R., Wagner, U. Pettigrew, T.F., Christ, O., Wolf, C., Petzel, T., Smith Castro, V., & Jackson, J.S. (2004). Role of perceived importance in intergroup contact. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 211–227. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.87.2.211
  • Van Dick, R., Wagner, U., Stellmacher, J., & Christ, O. (2004). The utility of a broader conceptualization of organizational identification: Which aspects really matter? Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 171-191. doi: 10.1348/096317904774202135


  • Christ, O., Van Dick, R., Wagner, U. & Stellmacher, J. (2003). When teachers go the extra-mile: Foci of organizational identification as determinants of different forms of organizational citizenship behavior among schoolteachers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 329-341. doi:10.1348/000709903322275867
  • Van Dick, R. Govaris, H., Wagner, U. & Kodakos, T. (2003). Der Einfluss kultureller Hintergründe und individueller Orientierungen auf den Umgang von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern mit interkulturellen Problemsituationen: Eine Untersuchung an griechischen und deutschen Lehrkräften [The impact of cultural background and individual orientations on school teachers treatment of intercultural problems: An exploration among teachers in Greece and Germany]. Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 50, 342-352.
  • Wagner, U., Van Dick, R., Pettigrew, T.F. & Christ, O. (2003). Ethnic prejudice in East- and West-Germany: The explanatory power of intergroup contact. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 6, 23-37. doi: 10.1177/1368430203006001010


  • Meyer, I. & Van Dick, R. (2002). Zeit- und Zeitmanagement im Lehrerberuf: Eine empirische Analyse und Konzeption einer Trainingseinheit zur Optimierung von Zeitmanagement. [Working time and time management in the teaching profession: an empirical analysis and design of a time management training] Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 49, 264-273.
  • Moltzen, K. & Van Dick, R. (2002). Arbeitsrelevante Einstellungen bei Call Center Agenten: Ein Vergleich unterschiedlicher Call Center Typen. [Work-related attitudes among call center agents: a comparison of different types of call centers] Zeitschrift für Personalpsychologie, 1, 161-170.doi: 10.1026//1617-6391.1.4.161
  • Stierle, C., Van Dick, R., & Wagner, U. (2002). Success or failure? Personality, Family, and Values as determinants for intercultural effectiveness of expatriate managers. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 33, 209-218. doi:10.1024//0044-3514.33.4.209
  • Van Dick, R. & Wagner, U. (2002). Social identification among school teachers: Dimensions, foci, and correlates. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11, 129-149. doi: 10.1080/13594320143000889
  • Wagner, U., Christ, O. & Van Dick, R. (2002). Die empirische Evaluation von Präventionsprogrammen gegen Fremdenfeindlichkeit. [The empirical evaluation of primary prevention programs of hostility against foreigners] Journal für Konflikt- und Gewaltforschung, 4, 101-117. Wiederabgedruckt in [Reprinted in:]: Polizei & Wissenschaft, 2/2002, 33-42.


  • Gautam, T., Van Dick, R. & Wagner, U. (2001). Organizational commitment in Nepalese settings. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 4, 239-248.
  • Van Dick, R. (2001). Identification and self-categorization processes in organizational contexts: Linking theory and research from social and organizational psychology. International Journal of Management Reviews, 3, 265-283. doi: 10.1111/1468-2370.00068
  • Van Dick, R. Schnitger, C., Schwartzmann-Buchelt, C. & Wagner, U. (2001) Der Job Diagnostic Survey im Bildungsbereich: Eine Überprüfung der Gültigkeit des Job Characteristics Model bei Lehrerinnen und Lehrern, Hochschulangehörigen und Erzieherinnen. [The job diagnostic survey for educational sector occupations] Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 45, 74-92.
  • Van Dick, R. & Wagner, U. (2001). Der AVEM im Lehrerberuf: Eine Validierungsstudie. [The AVEM in teaching: a validity study] Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 22, 267-278. doi: 10.1024//0170-1789.22.4.267
  • Wagner, U. & Van Dick, R. (2001). Fremdenfeindlichkeit „in der Mitte der Gesellschaft“: Phänomenbeschreibung, Ursachen, Gegenmaßnahmen. [Prejudice in the „middle of society“: description, causes, countermeasures] Zeitschrift für Politische Psychologie, 9, 41-54.
  • Wagner, U., Van Dick, R. & Zick, A. (2001). Sozialpsychologische Analysen und Erklärungen von Fremdenfeindlichkeit in Deutschland. [Social psychological analyses and explanations of prejudice in Germany] Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 32, 59-79.
  • Zick, A., Wagner, U., Van Dick, R. & Petzel, T. (2001). Acculturation and prejudice in Germany: Perspectives of majority and minority. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 541-557.doi: 10.1024//0044-3514.32.2.59


  • Schnitger, C. & Van Dick, R. (2000). Die Arbeitssituation von Wissenschaftlern: Subjektive Wahrnehmung von Stress und Zufriedenheit. [The work situation of scientists: subjective perceptions of stress and satisfaction] Report Psychologie, 25, 660-667.
  • Wagner, U., Van Dick, R., Petzel, T., Auernheimer, G. & Sommer, G. (2000). Ethnische Einstellungen von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern und ihr Umgang mit interkulturellen Problemsituationen. [Ethnic attitudes of teachers and their dealing with intercultural problems] Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 47, 46-65.
  • Wagner, U. & Van Dick, R. (2000). Der Umgang mit Aggression und Gewalt bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Einige psychologische Anmerkungen. [The treatment of aggression and violence of children and youth : some psychological annotations] Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, B19-20, 34-38. Wiederabgedruckt in [Reprinted in:]: dvb forum, 1/2003, 41-45.


  • Van Dick, R., Wagner, U. & Petzel, T. (1999). Arbeitsbelastung und gesundheitliche Beschwerden von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern: Einflüsse von Sozialer Unterstützung, Mobbing und Kompetenzüberzeugungen. [Job strain and physical symptoms among teachers: influences of social support, mobbing, and control beliefs] Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 46, 269-280.
  • Van Dick, R., Wagner, U., Petzel, T., Lenke, S. & Sommer, G. (1999). Arbeitsbelastung und Soziale Unterstützung: Erste Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern. [Job strain and social support: first results of a study among schoolteachers] Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 46, 55-64.


  • Auernheimer, G., Van Dick, R., Petzel, T., Sommer, G. & Wagner , U. (1998). Wie gehen Lehrer/innen mit kulturellen Differenzen um? Ergebnisse einer Lehrerbefragung. (How do teachers deal with cultural differences?] Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 1, 597-613.


  • Petzel, T., Wagner, U., Van Dick, R. & Stellmacher, J. (1997). Der Einfluß autoritaristischer Einstellungen von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern auf ihr Verhalten in konflikthaften interkulturellen Situationen in der Schule. [The impact of authoritarianism of schoolteachers on their dealing with problematic intercultural situations] Gruppendynamik, 28, 291-303.
  • Petzel, T., Wagner, U., Nicolai, K. & Van Dick, R. (1997). Ein kurzes Instrument zur Messung von Autoritarismus-Neigung. [A short scale to measure authoritarianism] Gruppendynamik, 28, 251-258.
  • Van Dick, R., Wagner, U., Adams, C. & Petzel, T. (1997). Einstellungen zur Akkulturation: Erste Evaluation eines Fragebogens an sechs deutschen Stichproben. [Attitudes towards acculturation: first scale evaluation in six German samples] Gruppendynamik, 28, 83-92.
  • Tavares, S., Van Knippenberg, D., & Van Dick, R. (2016). Organizational Identification and “Currencies of Exchange”: Integrating Social Identity and Social Exchange Perspectives. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 46, 34-45.