An experiment at GSI simulates how heavy elements capture protons
FRANKFURT. Heavy elements are produced during stellar explosion or on the surfaces of neutron stars through the capture of hydrogen nuclei (protons). This occurs at extremely high temperatures, but at relatively low energies. An international research team headed by Goethe University has now succeeded in investigating the capture of protons at the storage ring of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung.
As the scientists report in the current issue of Physical Review Letters, their goal was to determine more precisely the probability for a proton capture in astrophysical scenarios. As Dr. Jan Glorius from the GSI atomic physics research department explains, they were faced with two challenges in this endeavour: “The reactions are most probable under astrophysical circumstances in an energy range called the Gamow window. In this range, nuclei tend to be somewhat slow, making them difficult to obtain in the required intensity. In addition, the cross section – the probability of proton capture – decreases rapidly with energy. Until now, it has been almost impossible to create the right conditions in a laboratory for these kinds of reactions."
René Reifarth, Professor for experimental astrophysics at Goethe University suggested a solution as early as ten years ago: The low energies within the Gamow window range can be reached more precisely when the heavy reaction partner circulates in an accelerator in which it interact with an stationary proton gas. He achieved first successes in September 2015 with a group of Heimholtz early career researchers. Since then, his team has gained excellent support from Professor Yuri Litvinov, who leads the EU-funded research project ASTRUm at GSI.
In the experiment, the international team first produced xenon ions. They were decelerated in the experimental storage ring ESR and caused to interact with protons. This resulted in reactions in which the xenon nuclei captured a proton and were transformed into heavier caesium – a process like that which occurs in astrophysical scenarios.
“The experiment makes a decisive contribution to advancing our understanding of nucleosynthesis in the cosmos," says René Reifarth. “Thanks to the high-performance accelerator facility at GSI, we were able to improve the experimental technique for decelerating the heavy reaction partner. We now have more exact knowledge of the area in which the reaction rates occur, which until now had only been theoretically predicted. This allows us to more precisely model the production of elements in the universe."
The experiment took place as part of the research collaboration SPARC (Stored Particles Atomic Physics Research Collaboration), which is part of the FAIR research programme. Equipment funded by the Verbundforschung (collaborative research) of the Federal Ministry for Education and Research was used in this experiment.
A picture can be downloaded here: http://www.uni-frankfurt.de/76756294
Caption: For the first time, it was possible to investigate the fusion of hydrogen and xenon using an ion storage ring at the same temperatures as during stellar explosions. Credit: Mario Weigand, Goethe-Universität
Publication: J. Glorius et al: Approaching the Gamow window with stored ions: Direct measurement of 124Xe(p,γ) in the ESR storage ring, in PRL, DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.092701
Further information: Professor René Reifarth, Institute for Applied Physics at Goethe University, Riedberg Campus, Tel.: +49 69 798-47442, Reifarth@physik.uni-frankfurt.de.
Laser light determines chirality of molecules
FRANKFURT. Seven of the ten most frequent medications contain chiral agents. These are molecules that occur in right- or left-handed forms. During chemical synthesis both forms usually occur in equal parts and have to be separated afterward, because chirality determines the agent's effect in the body. Physicists at Goethe University have now succeeded in using laser light for the purpose of creating either right- or left-handed molecules.
“In pharmaceutics, being able to transition a molecule from one chirality to the other using light instead of wet chemistry would be a dream," says Professor Reinhard Dörner from the Institute of Atomic Physics at Goethe University. His doctoral student Kilian Fehre has now brought this dream one step closer to coming true. His observation: the formation of the right- or left-handed version depends on the direction from which laser light hits the initiator.
For his experiment, Kilian Fehre used the planar formic acid molecule. He activated it with an intense, circularly polarized laser pulse to transition it to a chiral form. At the same time, the radiation caused the molecule to break into its atomic components. It was necessary to destroy the molecule for the experiment so that it could be determined whether a duplicate or mirror version was created.
Fehre used the “reaction microscope" (COLTRIMS method) that was developed at the Institute for Atomic Physics for the analysis. It allows the investigation of individual molecules in a molecular beam. After the molecule's explosive breakdown, the data provided by the detector can be used to precisely calculate the direction and speed of the fragments' paths. This makes it possible to reconstruct the molecule's spatial structure.
In order to create chiral molecules with the desired chirality in the future, it has to be ensured that the molecules are oriented the same way with regard to the circularly polarized laser pulse. This could be achieved by orienting them beforehand using a long-wave laser light.
This discovery could also play a critical role in generating larger quantities of molecules with uniform chirality. However, the researchers believe that in such cases, liquids would probably be radiated rather than gases. “There is a lot of work to be done before we get that far," Kilian Fehre believes.
The detection and manipulation of chiral molecules using light is the focus of a priority programme which goes by the memorable name “ELCH" and which has been funded by the German Research Council since 2018. Scientists from Kassel, Marburg, Hamburg and Frankfurt have joined forces in this programme. “The long-term funding and the close collaboration with the priority programme provide us with the necessary resources to learn to control chirality in a large class of molecules in the future," concludes Markus Schöffler, one of the Frankfurt project managers of the priority programme.
Publication: K. Fehre, S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, M. Pitzer, S. Zeller, C. Janke, D. Trabert, J. Rist, M. Weller, A. Hartung, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, R. Berger, R. Dörner und M. S. Schöffler: Enantioselective fragmentation of an achiral molecule in a strong laser field, in: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau7923
An image can be downloaded here: www.uni-frankfurt.de/76731281
Caption: The formic acid model is in the centre. The color code of the surrounding sphere shows the direct chirality of the formic acid for every direction from which the laser comes. If the laser is directed from the right side (right arrow), it results in right-handed formic acid; if from the left, in left-handed formic acid. Both chiral formic acids reflect the common structure of the molecule.
Further information: Kilian Fehre, Tel: +49 69 798-47004, email@example.com; Prof. Reinhard Dörner, Tel: +49 69 798-47003, firstname.lastname@example.org; Dr. Markus Schöffler, Tel: +49 69 798-47022, email@example.com. Institute for Atomic Physics, Faculty of Physics, Riedberg Campus.
Goethe University’s Institute for Law and Finance (ILF) makes the top ten in worldwide ranking
FRANKFURT/BRÜSSEL. The Institute for Law and Finance (ILF) at Goethe University has a strong international profile. It has now been named one of the top ten LL.M programmes in the field of law for banking, finance and securities for the year 2019 by the online portal “LL.M. Guide."
“LL.M." stands for “Master of Laws". It is a postgraduate law degree which can be obtained by law graduates as well as graduates of business, finance and other equivalent disciplines. The degree is especially widespread in the English-speaking parts of the globe. The Institute for Law and Finance at Goethe University offers two degrees programmes, namely LL.M. Finance and LL.M. International Finance. The institute is relatively young: it was established as a non-profit foundation in 2002 by Goethe University with the support of supervisory authorities, banks, and law firms for the purpose of conducting research and education in law and finance.
The “LL.M. Guide" portal is a leading web portal for master of laws programmes. Prospective students can find extensive information on LL.M. master programmes offered worldwide, a discussion forum, and editorial articles about law degree programmes. Applicants from all over the world desiring an LL.M. use the portal to acquire information and prepare their applications for acceptance to a programme.
The “LL.M. Guide" compared and evaluated the ILF's two degree programmes with the LL.M. master of laws programmes at globally renowned international universities (e.g, Harvard, Columbia, Boston, London School of Economics, National University of Singapore). Outside of the Anglo-American parts of the globe, the ILF is the best institute of its kind in the world.
Further information: Prof. Dr. Andreas Cahn, Institute for Law and Finance, House of Finance, Westend Campus, Tel: +49 69/798-33753, E-Mail: mailto:Cahn@ilf.uni-frankfurt.de; Homepage Institute for Law and Finance: https://www.ilf-frankfurt.de
Goethe-University submits joint application with universities from Birmingham, Lyon, Milan, Lodz and Tel Aviv
FRANKFURT. European citizens working constructively together to create a peaceful and successful Europe – that's the fundamental thought behind the “European Universities" concept proposed by France's president Emmanual Macron in September 2017. And Goethe University wants to contribute to this goal. Together with six other universities from five cities, it has submitted an application with the European Union for funding within the framework of the EU pilot programme. A decision will be announced in July.
“Trust through mobility“ – this is the theme adopted by the network at their first meeting last year. “TruMotion Alliance" is consequently the name the alliance has given itself. The universities in Birmingham, Lyon Lumière II, Sciences Po Lyon and Cattolica (Milan) are taking part as partners with Goethe University. The universities in Lodz and Tel Aviv are also on board as associate partners.
As University President Birgitta Wolff emphasizes: “Europe is too important to be handed over to populists. So we are glad to take up French President Emmanuel Macron's initiative and participate in this competition for the best concepts for a European University together with our partners from a total of five countries. Science is improved by international cooperation, and Europe stands together in science."
“The European University continues the idea of interconnectedness through strategic partnerships that has long been practiced at Goethe University," says Professor Rolf van Dick, who as Vice President is responsible for internationalisation. The partner universities in the joint application with Frankfurt are all also located in cities who are connected with each other as partner cities. Goethe University has taken up the lead role in the consortium and is responsible for project coordination, sustainability and distribution. Birmingham will focus on the area of management structure and mutual learning; Lyon Lumière II and Sciences Po Lyon are in charge of the development of new study programmes and student exchange, and Milan is in charge of citizen involvement.
In total, € 60 million is available for twelve pilot projects in the first round of applications. In its application, the consortium led by Goethe University has applied for the maximum amount of € 6.2 million, of which €1.2 million is to be provided by the consortium itself for personnel costs. The EU plans additional rounds of applications with a funding volume of up to € 1.3 billion.
In a highly publicized speech in September 2017, French President Emmanuel Macron proposed the creation of 20 European Universities by 2024 – not by creating new institutions, but through the networking and alignment of existing universities. In a difficult era for the European Union, university science should be strengthened as an important motor of European integration in the expectation that this contributes to the younger generation in particular developing a closer connection with the project of Europe. But science in general is of great significance for the crystallization of a European identity – as expressed, for example, in the Erasmus exchange programme or through the research collaborations funded by the EU. Macron affirmed his vision during a visit at Goethe University in October 2017, and was met with an enthusiastic response.
If the application is successful, the consortium plans extensive activities in teaching and study, and citizen involvement through 2022. The conceptual development of common bachelor degree programmes in social sciences, biological sciences and media sciences would be undertaken with an integrated mobility module, meaning foreign exchange semesters would be required. The master degree programme Audiovisual and Cinema Studies Master at Goethe University, which is offered together with 14 international partners, serves as a model. The programmes will be supplemented by additional, low-threshold formats intended to facilitate international student exposure, such as digitally-supported international study group networks, internships with business and public organisations, guest lecturers and joint summer schools. New opportunities for intensive exchange of knowledge and experience is also intended to be made available for university personnel in teaching and administration, for example through job shadowing and workshops for the development of joint research ideas and applications. In addition, the conference series “The University and the City", with partners from city and regional administration and the private business sector, is also to be continued.
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Caption: Representatives of the universities submitting the application during a meeting at Università Cattolica in February. (Credit: Goethe University)
The general practitioner receives € 10,000 Public Fellowship Award for his work mediating between medicine, politics, and society as a whole
FRANKFURT. Professor Ferdinand Gerlach, Director of the Institute of General Practice at Goethe University, has received the Alfons and Gertrude Kassel Foundation's Public Service Fellowship Award for his outstanding work as long-standing chair of the German Council of Health Advisors. Every two years, the award, which includes a cash prize of € 10,000, is presented to Goethe University professors that are also active members of influential scientific or political organisations. The award money is to be invested in realising and facilitating projects and assignments that the special commitments of the award-winners prevent from finding the time to work on themselves.
Professor Gerlach has been committed to improving health care services in Germany for many years. At the award ceremony on 25th February, University President Birgitta Wolf thanked him for providing high-quality science-based political consulting services in an era of “fake news". This also supports one of the university's central objectives: to improve society through the results of its research. Vice President Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz described Gerlach as Goethe University's “model professor" and the “most important general practitioner in Germany".
In his speech at the award ceremony, Professor Christoph Straub, Chairman of the Board of the BARMER health insurer, praised Gerlach's long-time commitment to continuous quality improvement and the employment of evidence-based medicine in medical practice. As early as 1993, Gerlach developed ideas to improve the medical quality assurance process, and implemented quality compasses for family practitioners. In 2004, he devised the internet platform “Every-Mistake-Counts," which enables general practices to anonymously report mistakes that others can learn from.
Ferdinand Gerlach was an early advocate of evidence-based medicine. He initiated the development of guidelines for general practice, a concept subsequently adopted in other medical fields. His areas of focus also include epidemiology in public health practice, digitalisation in the health sector, patient safety, healthcare for the chronically ill, and health services research. He has established three additional chairs for these special fields at the Institute of General Practice, as well as an endowed chair for polypharmacy and health services research from 1st March.
With his appointment as chair of the German Council of Health Advisors, Gerlach went from being “the first family physician in the country to generalist and navigator of the health care sector," said Straub. With his affable, thoughtful and unassuming demeanour, he is the “gentleman of political consulting," yet he can also be tough and assertive, particularly when it concerns the accurate presentation of scientific issues. While this does not always make working with him easy, it is a successful formula. For example, the German government has only recently adopted many of the Council's recommendations on emergency care.
Gerlach has also worked in various way to improve teaching and education in his field. His project “Landpartie" (country outing) encourages students to complete the practical part of their medical studies in rural practices, and thus helps to tackle the prevailing shortage of doctors in rural regions. He further organised a high-calibre lecture series to raise student awareness of diagnostic and therapeutic overtreatment, at which Eckhard von Hirschhausen spoke about the healing power of humour.
Professor Ferdinand M. Gerlach, MPH, studied human medicine in Göttingen and received his doctorate in 1987. He concluded his specialty training in general practice in 1992, and completed a post-graduate degree in Public Health with a focus on “Management in the Health Sector" at the Medical University in Hanover at the same time. Before his appointment to Goethe University in 2004, he was Professor of General Practice at the University of Kiel. In addition to various positions in national and international committees and organisations, he was president of the DEGAM (German College of General Practitioners and Family Physicians) from 2010 to 2016.
Numerous scientific awards attest to his excellent work. These include the Hessen Higher Education Prize for Excellence in Teaching) (2017), Award of the Saxony Society for General Practice (2017), German Research Award for General Practice (2008), Richard Merten Award for Quality Assurance in the Health Sector (2005), Berlin Health Award (2002), German Health Award for 'Innovation in the Health Sector' (1999) and the Health Sciences Award (1994).
Further information: Professor Ferdinand Gerlach, Master of Public Health, Institute of General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Niederrad Campus, Tel. (069) 6301-5687, firstname.lastname@example.org.
An image may be downloaded here: www.uni-frankfurt.de/76519146
Caption: University President Professor Birgitta Wolff, Professor Ferdinand Gerlach und his wife, Professor Heike Schnoor, Award ceremony speaker Professor Christoph Straub. Credit: Benjamin André