International research team solves theory of how diamonds formed inside protoplanets
Substance with new mechanism of action found
Grant allows conservation of valuable collection owned by the Department for Children’s and Young Adult Literature Research at Goethe University.
Physicists at Goethe University lead one of the technical refurbishments of “ALICE” for researching quark-gluon plasma
The ALICE experiment at the particle accelerator CERN in Geneva has the aim of providing new insights into an extremely hot and dense state of matter, the quark-gluon plasma. The entire matter of the universe was in this state just a few millionths of a second after the big bang, and the ALICE experiment will help researchers discover how the universe developed out of this primordial soup. An international team of scientists led by the physicist Harald Appelshäuser from Goethe University Frankfurt have therefore upgraded the centrepiece of the ALICE detector to current state of the art technology.
the moment, the accelerators at CERN are at rest during the “second long
shutdown". During this time, the accelerators undergo upgrades and refurbishments
so that more particles can be accelerated and the number of collisions will increase
in the future. The detectors are also undergoing upgrades. But while the large
all-purpose detectors ATLAS and CMS are not scheduled for larger upgrades until
the next, and third long shutdown in 2025, the specialised detector ALICE will enter
the upcoming measurement campaign already upgraded.
ALICE is a unique project among the research adventures surrounding CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While the other three detectors decipher what occurs in collisions of protons, the researchers in the ALICE experiment are concerned with lead ions – particles that are many times heavier. Each year, the LHC is operated with lead ions for one month so that the ALICE detector can collect data. The researchers want to learn more about a particular state of matter: quark-gluon-plasma. It is created inside the ALICE experiment when lead nuclei collide with each other at high energy and are dissolved into their elementary components for a short moment. In this hot and dense soup of matter, quarks and gluons, otherwise firmly attached in the protons and neutrons, can move around virtually freely. What happens during the collisions may provide insight into how our universe as we know it today was formed out of a giant primordial out of quark-gluon plasma.
Recording a movie instead of taking individual pictures
After the shutdown, the upgraded ALICE detector will show what it can now do: previously, the LHC accelerator delivered 10,000 collisions per second. At 18,000 particles per collision this amounts to 180 million particles per second, only a portion of which was able to be recorded by the ALICE detector. After the shutdown, the technological hurdles which have until now limited the number of recorded collisions will have been eliminated. The LHC should then deliver 50,000 collisions of lead ions per second, resulting in 900 million particles per second. “We want to record all collisions in entirety and, in fact, continuously, in other words, to record a movie instead of individual pictures," explains Harald Appelshäuser, Professor at the Institute for Nuclear Physics at Goethe University Frankfurt and project leader of the subdetector that will make the biggest difference after the upgrade.
Detector under construction
To achieve this, one of the central detectors of the 26-metre long and 16-metre high ALICE detector complex, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), was removed and carefully brought from the underground detector cavern into a clean room on the surface. Different parts that were developed all over the world during the past several years were gradually and carefully installed. Now the technologically upgraded TPC has been returned to its home at the heart of ALICE.
The highlights are the new readout chambers which no longer consist of many fine wires, but basically of about five billion tiny holes. In these holes, the signals of the charged particles will be amplified so that the scientists can precisely calculate the track of each particle. These chambers are called “GEMs" – Gas Electron Multipliers – and are a CERN invention which has already found its way into medical procedures. 500,000 channels ensure that nothing escapes the ALICE experiment. Each second during the collisions later results in 3.4 terabytes of data.
New procedures must also be developed which can process this flood of data. With the participation of high-performance computing expert Professor Volker Lindenstruth and his colleagues, scientists from Goethe University will be playing a leading role here as well. “We now have the finest of the fine and look forward to the first collisions," says Appelshäuser.
The new GEM readout chambers were custom fit for the ALICE experiment through testing and development in Germany – at Goethe University Frankfurt as well as at the Bonn and Heidelberg Universities, the Technical University Munich, and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, and later assembled in different countries which in addition to Germany included Hungary, Finland, Romania and the USA. “The logistics were pretty complicated," explains project leader Appelshäuser. “The TPC was brought to the clean room in 2019 that was where we removed the older chambers and installed and tested the new ones. Luckily, we had just finished before the pandemic started."
During the shutdown ALICE will also receive a new inner tracking chamber, positioned closer to the collision point and further increasing precision compared to its predecessor. And the detectors have to be precise, for only through exact determination of particle paths and particle energies can conclusions be reached about the first split seconds of the universe.
Images may be downloaded here: http://www.uni-frankfurt.de/92047073
Working on the ALICE detector under corona
conditions: from the left: Robert Münzer (Goethe University Frankfurt, GU),
Chilo Garabatos (GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung), Lars Bratrud (GU),
Yiota Chatzidaki (Heidelberg University), Christian Lippmann (GSI).
Credit: Robert Münzer
images for download at CERN:
Prof. Dr. Harald Appelshäuser
Institute for Nuclear Physics
Phone: +49 69 798-47034 or 47023
Archaeologists from Frankfurt and Munich prove origins in the first millennium B.C.
FRANKFURT. Until now the Nebra sky disk was deemed to be from the Early Bronze Age and therefore the world's oldest depiction of the cosmos. Archaeologists from Goethe University Frankfurt and Ludwig-Maximilian University in Munich have now reanalysed diverse data on the reconstruction of the discovery site and surrounding circumstances of the find. Their findings are that the disk must be dated in the Iron Age, making it about 1,000 years younger than previously assumed. This makes all previous astronomical interpretations obsolete.
The Nebra sky disk is one of Germany's most significant archaeological finds and was included in the UNESCO Memory of the World Register in 2013. It was discovered in an illegal excavation in 1999 together with Bronze Age swords, axes and bracelets according to the finders. This discovery context was important for the scientific dating, as the disk itself could neither be scientifically nor archeologically dated by comparison with other objects. Many years of investigations by several research groups therefore attempted to verify both the attribution to the supposed discovery site as well as the common origins of the objects independent of the vague information given by the looters.
Rupert Gebhard, Director of the Munich Archäologischen Staatssammlung, and Rüdiger Krause Professor for Prehistory and Early European History at Goethe University Frankfurt have now extensively analysed the discovery circumstances and research results on the Nebra sky disk. Their conclusion: The site that was considered the discovery site until today and which was investigated in subsequent excavations is with high probability not the discovery site of the looters. Furthermore, there is no convincing evidence that the Bronze Age swords, axes and bracelets form an ensemble of common origins. For this reason, it must be assumed that this is not a typical Bronze Age deposit and that the disk was not found together with the other objects in an original state at the excavation site.
According to the archaeologists, this means that the disk must be investigated and evaluated as an individual find. Culturally and stylistically, the sky disk cannot be fitted into the Early Bronze Age motif world of the beginning of the second millennium B.C. On the contrary, clearer references can be made to the motif world of the Iron Age of the first millennium B.C. According to Gebhard and Krause, on the basis of a divergent data situation and on the basis of this new assessment, all previous, sometimes far-reaching cultural-historical conclusions must be discussed anew and with an open mind, and the disk must be interpreted and evaluated in different contexts than before. The basis for this must be the submission of all previously unpublished data and facts.
More detailed information can be found on the website of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ur- und Frühgeschichte (German Society for Prehistory and Early History) https://dguf.de/himmelsscheibe.html
Publication: Rupert Gebhard & Rüdiger Krause, Critical comments on the find complex of the so-called Nebra Sky Disk. In: Archäologische Informationen. Early View: citable online version with preliminary page numbering. After the printed volume is published, the final page numbers can be found in open access here: http://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/arch-inf. The printed volume can be obtained here: http://www.archaeologische-informationen.de
Image download: http://www.uni-frankfurt.de/91701141
1. The condition of the Nebra sky disk before being transferred to the Landesmuseum Halle an der Saale. Credit: Hildegard Burri-Bayer
2. Bronze Age swords, axes and bracelets, supposedly found together with the Nebra sky disk. Condition before being transferred to the Landesmuseum Halle an der Saale. Credit: Hildegard Burri-Bayer
Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Krause
Prof. Dr. Rupert Gebhard
Press Office of Goethe University Frankfurt
Dr Markus Bernards
Tel. +49 (0)69 798 12498