Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a common
cause of death in patients with cirrhosis. In ACLF the progressive loss of
function of the scarred liver can no longer be compensated (acute
decompensation). As a result, other organs such as the kidney or brain fail.
The triggers for acute decompensation of liver cirrhosis and an ACLF are most
frequently bacterial infections, liver inflammation caused by alcohol, or a
combination of both factors. This was revealed by the evaluation of the PREDICT
study, which was conducted by an international team of researchers led by Professor
Jonel Trebicka from the University Hospital Frankfurt.
FRANKFURT. Chronic liver disease and even
cirrhosis can go unnoticed for a long time because many patients have no symptoms:
the liver suffers silently. When the body is no longer able to compensate for
the liver's declining performance, the condition deteriorates dramatically in a
very short time: tissue fluid collects in the abdomen (ascites), internal
bleeding occurs in the oesophagus and elsewhere, and the brain is at risk of
being poisoned by metabolic products. This acute decompensation of liver
cirrhosis can develop into acute-on-chronic liver failure with inflammatory
reactions throughout the body and failure of several organs.
In the PREDICT study, led by Professor
Jonel Trebicka, scientists from 15 European countries observed 1273 patients
who were hospitalized with acute decompensation of their liver cirrhosis. The
current evaluation of the study focused on the question of what can trigger
acute decompensation of liver cirrhosis. The result: in the vast majority of cases
(>90%), a bacterial infection, liver inflammation caused by alcohol
consumption, or both together could be identified as the trigger.
Bleeding in the digestive tract and brain dysfunction
induced by painkillers or sedatives (drug-induced toxic encephalopathy) were
identified as further trigger, although at a lower rate.
Lead investigator Professor Jonel
Trebicka, gastroenterologist and hepatologist at the Medical Clinic I of the
University Hospital Frankfurt, explains: "The acute decompensation of
liver cirrhosis demands rapid and targeted action. In the PREDICT study, we
therefore want to learn a lot about the triggering factors of this
life-threatening disease in order to be able to derive recommendations for
diagnostics and therapy. Knowing what the most likely triggers of acute
decompensation are will help to further develop diagnostic and treatment
strategies for patients with this life-threatening disease."
The pan-European PREDICT study has
monitored the clinical course of acute decompensations of liver cirrhosis to
find early signs of the development of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF).
PREDICT is funded by the European Foundation for the Study of Chronic Liver
Failure. A total of 136 scientists from 47 centres and institutions in 15
European countries are participating in PREDICT.
Jonel Trebicka, Javier Fernandez, et al.
for the PREDICT STUDY group of the EASL-CLIF CONSORTIUM: PREDICT identifies precipitating events associated with the clinical
course of acutely decompensated cirrhosis. Journal of Hepatology (2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.11.019
University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe
Medical Clinic I
Professor Jonel Trebicka
Section Translational Hepatology,
Medical Clinic I (Director: Professor
Goethe University/University Hospital
Tel. +49 69 6301 80789 (Jennifer Biondo,
European Foundation for the Study of Chronic Liver Failure (EF Clif) is a private, non-profit Foundation whose mission is to promote study
and research on Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure and thus, contribute to
improving both the quality of life and survival of patients with liver
The EF Clif was created in 2015 to support the
research work carried out by the EASL Clif Consortium, a research network of
more than 100 European University Hospitals and 200 clinical investigators. In
2013, the Consortium described a new syndrome: Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure
(ACLF), which is the most common cause of death in cirrhosis.
Currently, the research activity of the EF Clif is
fostered through two chairs: the EASL Clif Chair, to promote observational,
pathophysiological and therapeutic studies through the EASL-Clif Consortium's
hospital network; and the Grifols Chair, which promotes the development of
translational research projects with the creation of a network of centres
The European Network for Translational Research in Chronic Liver Failure
To know more about the EF Clif: http://www.efclif.com Twitter: @ef_clif