Kontrisol webpage: https://www.kontrisol.de
For drinking water treatment, membrane separation processes such as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis (NF and UO) are increasingly being used to reduce the concentration of hardness constituents, inorganic water constituents, natural organic substances or anthropogenic trace substances. NF and RO largely separate dissolved substances. Hence, both techniques have advantages compared to alternative processes such as activated carbon filtration or ion exchange. In the aspect of the removal of polar organic substances or combined process objectives the two techniques excess in hardness reduction and removal of trace substances. NF/RO processes produce different amounts of concentrate. To ensure trouble-free operation of the LF/RO separation stage, so-called scaling inhibitors (antiscalants, mainly phosphonates and carboxylates) are added. In recent years, the discharge of concentrates into a water body has been viewed increasingly critically by the authorities. This is particularly true if the concentrates contain high concentrations of anthropogenic trace substances, including added treatment substances like polyphosphonates and carboxylates or nutrient salts. The effects of the constituents of concentrates (including antiscalants) have not been sufficiently evaluated with regard to their toxic effects on the aquatic environment. Therefore, the ecotoxicological and human toxicological evaluation of the concentrates, treated waters as well as of known antiscalants will be investigated using a battery of effect-based methods. Furhermore, the mixture toxicity of organic trace substances and antiscalants will be examined. For this purpose, the acute toxicity in vivo towards algae, daphnia and early stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio) will be applied. As proxies for the long-term effects, endocrine activity will also be analysed using the in vitro ER-, AR- and GR-CALUX as well as the H295R-S assay. Additionally, the mutagenic or genotoxic potential (reactive chemicals) will be determined using the Ames fluctuation assay and the micronucleus test. Furthermore, oxidative stress and behavioral test with early life stages of Danio rerio will be applied.
Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Henner Hollert
Goethe University Frankfurt
Biologicum, Campus Riedberg
60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Phone: +49 (0)69 798 42171
Fax: +49 (0)69 798 42161