Since 2003

Original articles:

Zhu, C, Yamamura, S., Nishihara, M, Koiwa, H. & Sandmann, G. (2003) cDNAs for the synthesis of cyclic carotenoids in petals of Gentiana lutea and their regulation during flower development. Biochim. Biophy. Acta 1625, 305-308.

Simkin, A.J, Zhu, C., Kuntz, M.& Sandmann, G. (2003) Light-dark regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in pepper (Capsicum annuum) leaves. J. Plant Physiol. 160, 439-443.

Steiger, S., Mazet, A. & Sandmann G. (2003) Heterologous expression, purification, and enzymatic characterization of the acyclic carotenoid 1,2-hydratase from Rubrivivax gelatinosus.Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 414, 51-58.

Badenhop, F., Steiger, S., Sandmann, M. & Sandmann, G. (2003) Expression and biochemical characterization of the 1-HO-carotenoid methylase CrtF from Rhodobacter capsulatus.FEMS Microbiol Lett. 222, 237 – 242.
Sickforth, P., Steiger, S., Hess, W.R. & Sandmann, G. (2003) A novel type of lycopene e-cyclase in the marin cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus MED4. Arch. Microbiol. 179, 409-415.

Simkin, A.J., Laboure, A. & Sandmann, G. (2003) Comparison of carotenoid content, gene expression and enzyme levels in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) leaves. Z. Naturforsch. 58c, 371-380.

Verdoes, C.J., Sandmann, G., Visser,H., Diaz, M., van Mossel, M. & van Ooyen, A.J.J. (2003) Metabolic engineering of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in the yeastXanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma). Appl. Environm. Microbiol. 69, 3728-3738.

Steiger, S. & Sandmann, G. (2004) Cloning of two carotenoid ketolase genes from 
Nostoc punctiforme for the heterologous production of canthaxanthin and astaxanthin. Biotechnol. Lett. 26, 813–817.

Teramoto, M., Rählert, N., Misawa, N. & Sandmann, G. (2004) 1-Hydroxy monocyclic 
carotenoid 3,4-dehydrogenase from a marine bacterium that produces myxol. FEBS Lett. 570, 184-188.

Breitenbach, J. & Sandmann, G. (2005) z-Carotene cis isomers as products and substrates in the plant poly-cis carotenoid biosynthetic pathway to lycopene. Planta 220, 785-793.

Schäfer, L., Vioque, A. & Sandmann G. (2005) Functional in situ evaluation of photosynthesis-protecting carotenoids in mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 78, 195–201.

Steiger. S., Jackisch, Y. & Sandmann G. (2005) Carotenoid biosynthesis in Gloeobacter violaceus PCC4721 involves a single crtI-type phytoene desaturase instead of typical cyanobacterial enzymes. Arch. Microbiol. 103, 207-214.

Huang J.C., Wang Y., Sandmann G. & Chen F. (2005) Isolation and characterization of a carotenoid oxygenase gene from Chlorella zofingiensis (Chlorophyta). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. i71, 473-479.

Huang J.C., Chen F. & Sandmann G. (2006) Stress-related differential expression of multiple ß-carotene ketolase genes in the unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. J Biotechnol. 122, 176-185.

Ojima K., Breitenbach J., Visser H., Setoguchi Y., Tabata K., Hoshino T., van den Berg J. and Sandmann G. (2006) Cloning of the astaxanthin synthase gene from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) and its assignment as a beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase / 4-ketolase. Mol. Gen. Genomics 275, 148-158.

Schäfer L., Sandmann M., Woitsch S., Sandmann G. (2006) Coordinate up-regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis as a response to light stress in Synechococcus PCC7942. Plant Cell Environ.. 29, 1349–1356.

Gerjets T., Sandmann G (2006) Ketocarotenoid formation in transgenic potato. J. Exp. Bot. 57, 3639-3645.

Steinbrenner J., Sandmann G. (2006) Transformation of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis with a phytoene desaturase for accelerated astaxanthin biosynthesis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72, 7477-7484.

Gerjets T., Sandman G: (2006) Ketocarotenoid formation in transgenic potato. J. Exp. Bot. 57, 3639-3645.

Sandmann G., Zhu C., Krubasik, P., Fraser P.D. (2006) The biotechnological potential of the al-2 gene from Neurospra crassa forthe production of monocyclic keto hydroxy carotenoids.Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1761, 1085-1092.

Zhu C., Kauder F., Römer S. & Sandmann G. (2007) Cloning of two individual cDNAS encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase from Gentiana lutea, their tissue-specific expression and physiological effect in transgenic tobacco. J Plant Physiol. 164, 195-204.

P. Stickforth & G. Sandmann (2007) Kinetic variations determine the product pattern of phytoene desaturase from Rubrivivax gelatinosus. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 461, 235-241.

R. Verwaal, J. Wang, J.P. Meijnen, H. Visser, G. Sandmann, J.A. van den Berg & A.J. van Ooyen (2007) High level production of beta-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by successive transformation with carotenogenic genes from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73, 4342-4350.

T. Gerjets, M. Sandmann, C. Zhu, G Sandmann (2007) Metabolic engineering of ketocarotenoid biosynthesis in leaves and flowers of tobacco species. Biotechnol. J. 2,1263-1269.

C. Zhu, T. Gerjets, G. Sandmann (2007) Nicotiana glauca engineered for the production of ketocarotenoids in flowers and leaves by expressing the cyanobacterial crtO ketolase gene.Transgenic Res.16, 813-821.

Y. Li, J. Huang, G. Sandmann F. Chen (2008) Glucose sensing and the mitochondrial alternative pathway are involved in the regulation of astaxanthin biosynthesis in the dark-grown Chlorella zofngiensis (Chlorophyceae). Planta 228, 735-743.

G. Sandmann, S. Takaichi, P. D. Fraser (2008) Novel C35-apocarotenoids in the yellow mutant Neurospora crassa YLO. Phytochem. 69, 2886-2890.

T. Makino, H. Harada, H. Ikenaga, S.Matsuda , S.Takaichi, K. Shind, G. Sandmann, T. Ogata, N. Misawa (2008) Characterization of cyanobacterial carotenoid ketolase CrtW and hydroxylase CrtR by complementation analysis in Escherichia coli. Plant Cell Physiol. 49, 1867–1878.

C. Zhu, S. Naqvi, J. Breitenbach, G. Sandmann, P. Christou, T. Capell (2008) Combinatorial genetic transformation generates a library of metabolic phenotypes for the carotenoid pathway in maize. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 18232-18237.

S. Köcher, J. Breitenbach, V. Müller, G. Sandmann (2009) Structure, function and biosynthesis of carotenoids in the moderately halophilic bacterium Halobacillus halophilus. Arch Microbiol. 191, 95-104.

F-C. Huang, G. Horváth, P. Molnár, E. Turcsi, J. Deli, J. Schrader G. Sandmann, H. Schmidt, W. Schwab (2009) Substrate promiscuity of RdCCD1, a carotenoid cleavage oxygenase from Rosa damascena. Phytochemistry 70 457–464.

S. Naqvi, C. Zhu, G. Farre1, K. Ramessar, L. Bassie, J. Breitenbach, D. Perez Conesa, G. Ros, G. Sandmann, T. Capell, P. Christou (2009) Transgenic multivitamin corn: Biofortification of corn endosperm with three vitamins representing three distinct metabolic pathways. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106, 7762-7767.

Strobel, J. Breitenbach, C. Q. Scheckhuber, H. D. Osiewacz, G. Sandmann (2009) Carotenoids and carotenogenic genes in Podospora anserina: engineering of the carotenoid composition extends the life span of the mycelium Curr. Genet. 55, 175–184.

N. Rählert, G. Sandmann (2009) A crtA-related gene from Flavobacterium P99-3 encodes a novel carotenoid 2-hydroxylase involved in myxol biosynthesis. FEBS Lett. 583,1605-1610.

T. Gerjets , S. Steiger, G. Sandmann (2009) Catalytic properties of the expressed acyclic carotenoid 2-ketolases from Rhodobacter capsulatus and Rubrivivax gelatinosus. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1791, 125-131.

R. Khaneja, L. Perez-Fons, S. Fakhry, L. Baccigalupi, S. Steiger, E. To, G. Sandmann, TC Dong TC, E. Ricca, PD Fraser SM Cutting (2010) Carotenoids found in Bacillus. J. Appl. Microbiol. 108, 1889-1902.

J. Liu, Y. Zhong, Z. Sun, J. Huang, Y. Jiang, G. Sandmann, F. Chen (2010) One amino acid substitution in phytoene desaturase makes Chlorella zofingiensis resistant to norflurazon and enhances the biosynthesis of astaxanthin. Planta 232, 61-67.

Q. Li, G. Farre, S. Naqvi, J. Breitenbach, G. Sanahuja, C. Bai, G. Sandmann, T. Capell, P. Christou, C. Zhu (2010) Cloning and functional characterization of the maize carotenoid isomerase and beta-carotene hydroxylase genes and their regulation during endosperm maturation. Transgenic Res. 19, 1053–1068.

R. Verwaal, Y. Jiang, J. Wang, J.M. Daran, G. Sandmann, J.A. van den Berg, A.J van Ooyen (2010) Heterologous carotenoid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces the pleiotropic drug resistance stress response. Yeast 27, 983-998.

A. Osawa, Y. Ishii, N. Sasamura, M. Morita, S. Köcher, V. Müller, G. Sandmann, K. Shindo (2010) Hydroxy-3,4-dehydro-apo-8'-lycopene and methyl hydroxy-3,4-dehydro-apo-8'-lycopenoate, novel C(30) carotenoids produced by a mutant of marine bacterium Halobacillus halophilus. J Antibiot. (Tokyo) 63, 291-295.

S. Naqvi, G. Farré, C. Zhu, G. Sandmann, T. Capell, P. Christou (2011) Simultaneous expression of Arabidopsis rho-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase and MPBQ methyltransferase in transgenic corn kernels triples the tocopherol content. Transgenic Res. 20, 177-181.

G. Sandmann (2010) A nitromethane-based HPLC system alternative to acetonitrile for carotenoid analysis of fruit and vegetables. Phytochem. Anal. 21, 434-437

Naqvi S, Zhu C, Farre G, Sandmann G, Capell T, Christou P. Synergistic metabolism in hybrid corn indicates bottlenecks in the carotenoid pathway and leads to the accumulation of extraordinary levels of the nutritionally important carotenoid zeaxanthin (2011) Plant Biotechnol. J.9, 384-393.

Stickforth P, Sandmann G. (2011) Structural and kinetics properties of a mutated phytoene desaturase from Rubrivivax gelatinosus with modified product specificity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 505, 118–122

Zhong YJ, Huang JC, Liu J, Li Y, Jiang Y, Xu ZF, Sandmann G, Chen F. (2011) Functional characterization of various algal carotenoid ketolases reveals that ketolating zeaxanthin efficiently is essential for high production of astaxanthin in transgenic Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot. 62, 3659-3669.

Perez-Fons L, Steiger S, Khaneja R, Bramley PM, Cutting SM, Sandmann G, Fraser PD. (2011) Identification and the developmental formation of carotenoid pigments in the yellow/orange Bacillus spore-formers. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1811, 177-185.

Breitenbach J, Visser H, Verdoes JC, van Ooyen AJ, Sandmann G. (2011) Engineering of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase levels and physiological conditions for enhanced carotenoid and astaxanthin synthesis in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. Biotechnol Lett. 33, 755-761.

Schmidt I, Schewe H, Gassel S, Jin C, Buckingham J, Hümbelin M, Sandmann G, Schrader J. (2011) Biotechnological production of astaxanthin with Phaffia rhodozyma/Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 89, 555-571.

Osawa A, Kasahara A, Mastuoka S, Gassel S, Sandmann G, Shindo K. (2011) Isolation of a novel carotenoid, OH-chlorobactene glucoside hexadecanoate, and related rare carotenoids from Rhodococcus sp. CIP and their antioxidative activities. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 75, 2142-7.

Naqvi S, Farré G, Zhu C, Sandmann G, Capell T, Christou P. (2011) Simultaneous expression of Arabidopsis ρ-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase and MPBQ methyltransferase in transgenic corn kernels triples the tocopherol content. Transgenic Res. 20, 177-181.

Farré G, Sudhakar D, Naqvi S, Sandmann G, Christou P, Capell T, Zhu C. (2012) Transgenic rice grains expressing a heterologous ρ-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase shift tocopherol synthesis from the γ to the α isoform without increasing absolute tocopherol levels. Transgenic Res. 21, 1093–1097

Yang Q, Yuan D, Shi L, Capell T, Bai C, Wen N, Lu X, Sandmann G, Christou P, Zhu C. (2012) Functional characterization of the Gentiana lutea zeaxanthin epoxidase (GlZEP) promoter in transgenic tomato plants. Transgenic Res. 21:1043–1056.

Breitenbach J, Fraser PD, Sandmann G. (2012) Carotenoid synthesis and phytoene synthase activity during mating of Blakeslea trispora. Phytochemistry. 76, 40-45.

Huang J, Zhong Y, Sandmann G, Liu J, Chen F. (2012) Cloning and selection of carotenoid ketolase genes for the engineering of high-yield astaxanthin in plants. Planta. 236, 691-699.

Steiger S, Perez-Fons L, Fraser PD, Sandmann G. (2012) The biosynthetic pathway to a novel derivative of 4,4'-diapolycopene-4,4'-oate in a red strain of Sporosarcina aquimarina. Arch Microbiol. 194, 779-784

Gassel S, Schewe H, Schmidt I, Schrader J, Sandmann G. (2013) Multiple improvement of astaxanthin biosynthesis in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous by a combination of conventional mutagenesis and metabolic pathway engineering. Biotechnol Lett. 35, 565-569

Dambek M, Eilers U, Breitenbach J, Steiger S, Büchel C, Sandmann G. (2012) Biosynthesis of fucoxanthin and diadinoxanthin and function of initial pathway genes in Phaeodactylum tricornutum. J Exp Bot. 63, 5607-5612

Steiger S, Perez-Fons L, Fraser PD, Sandmann G. (2012) Biosynthesis of a novel C30 carotenoid in Bacillus firmus isolates. J Appl Microbiol. 113, 888-895.

Makino T, Otomatsu T, Shindo K, Kitamura E, Sandmann G, Harada H, Misawa N. (2012) Biocatalytic synthesis of flavones and hydroxyl-small molecules by recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing the cyanobacterial CYP110E1 gene. Microb Cell Fact. 11, 95.

Breitenbach J, Gerjets T, Sandmann G. (2013) Catalytic properties and reaction mechanism of the CrtO carotenoid ketolase from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Arch Biochem Biophys. 529, 86-91

Schöpf L, Mautz J, Sandmann G. (2013) Multiple ketolases involved in light regulation of canthaxanthin biosynthesis in Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102. Planta 237, 1279-1285.

Huang JC, Zhong YJ, Liu J, Sandmann G, Chen F. (2013) Metabolic engineering of tomato for high-yield production of astaxanthin. Metab Eng. 17, 59-67.

Farré G, Maiam Rivera S, Alves R, Vilaprinyo E, Sorribas A, Canela R, Naqvi S, Sandmann G, Capell T, Zhu C, Christou P. (2013) Targeted transcriptomic and metabolic profiling reveals temporal bottlenecks in the maize carotenoid pathway that can be addressed by multigene engineering. Plant J. 75, 441-455.

Breitenbach J, Bruns M, Sandmann G.(2013) Contribution of two ζ-carotene desaturases to the poly-cis desaturation pathway in the cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7120. Arch Microbiol. 195, 491-498.

Osawa A, Iki K, Sandmann G, Shindo K (2013) Isolation and Identification of 4, 4'-diapolycopene-4,4'-dioic acid produced by Bacillus firmus GB1 and its singlet oxygen quenching activity. J Oleo Sci. 62, 955-960.

Zhu C, Yang Q, Ni X, Bai C, Sheng Y, Shi L, Capell T, Sandmann G, Christou P (2014) Cloning and functional analysis of the promoters that upregulate carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in Gentiana lutea. Physiol Plant. 2014 150, 493-504.

Gassel S, Breitenbach J, Sandmann G. (2014) Genetic engineering of the complete carotenoid pathway towards enhanced astaxanthin formation in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhousstarting from a high-yield mutant. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 98, 345-350

Ledetzky N, Osawa A, Iki K, Pollmann H, Gassel S, Breitenbach J, Shindo K, Sandmann G. (2014) Multiple transformation with the crtYB gene of the limiting enzyme increased carotenoid synthesis and generated novel derivatives in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. Arch Biochem Biophys. 545, 141-147.

Dambeck M, Sandmann G. (2014) Antioxidative activities of algal keto carotenoids acting as antioxidative protectants in the chloroplast. Photochem Photobiol. 90, 814-819.

Breitenbach J, Bai C, Rivera SM, Canela R, Capell T, Christou P, Zhu C, Sandmann G. (2014) A novel carotenoid, 4-keto-α-carotene, as an unexpected by-product during genetic engineering of carotenogenesis in rice callus. Phytochem. 98, 85-91.

Bai C, Rivera SM, Medina V, Alves R, Vilaprinyo E, Sorribas A, Canela R, Capell T, Sandmann G, Christou P, Zhu C. (2014) An in vitro system for the rapid functional characterization of genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation. Plant J. 77, 464-475.

Steiger S, Perez-Fons L, Cutting SM, Fraser PD, Sandmann G. (2015) Annotation and functional assignment of the genes for the C30 carotenoid pathways from the genomes of two bacteria Bacillus indicus and Bacillus firmus. Microbiology 161, 194-202.

Röding A, Dietzel L, Schlicke H, Grimm B, Sandmann G, Büchel C. (2015) Production of ketocarotenoids in tobacco alters the photosynthetic efficiency by reducing photosystem II supercomplex and LHCII trimer stability. Photosynth. Res. 123, 157-165.

Ayako Osawa, Yui Kaseya, Nao Koue, Jens Schrader, Claudia Knief, Julia A. Vorholt, Gerhard Sandmann, Kazutoshi Shindo (2015) 4-[2-O-11Z-Octadecenoyl-β-glucopyranosyl]-4,4′-diapolycopene-4,4′-dioic acid and 4-[2-O-9Z-hexadecenoyl-β-glucopyranosyl]-4,4′-diapolycopene-4,4′-dioic acid: new C30-carotenoids produced by Methylobacterium. Tetrahedron Lett. 56, 2791-2794.

Chang S, Berman J, Sheng Y, Wang Y, Capell T, Shi L, Ni X, Sandmann G, Christou P, Zhu C. (2015) Cloning and functional characterization of the maize (Zea mays L.) carotenoid epsilon hydroxylase gene. PLoS One 10, e0128758.

Sharma R, Gassel S, Steiger S, Xia X, Bauer R, Sandmann G, Thines M. (2015) The genome of the basal agaricomycete Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous provides insights into the organization of its acetyl-CoA derived pathways and the evolution of Agaricomycotina. BMC Genomics 16, 233.

Bai C, Capell T, Berman J, Medina V, Sandmann G, Christou P, Zhu C. (2015) Bottlenecks in carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation in rice endosperm are influenced by the precursor-product balance. Plant Biotechnol J. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25857664.

Nogareda C, Moreno JA, Angulo E, Sandmann G, Portero M, Capell T, Zhu C, Christou P. (2015) Carotenoid-enriched transgenic corn delivers bioavailable carotenoids to poultry and protects them against coccidiosis. Plant Biotechnol J. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25846059.

Decourcelle M, Perez-Fons L, Baulande S, Steiger S, Couvelard L, Hem S, Zhu C, Capell T, Christou P, Fraser P, Sandmann G. (2015) Combined transcript, proteome, and metabolite analysis of transgenic maize seeds engineered for enhanced carotenoid synthesis reveals pleotropic effects in core metabolism. J Exp Bot. 66, 3141-3150.

Eilers U, Bikoulis A, Breitenbach J, Büchel C, Sandmann G (2015) Limitations in the biosynthesis of fucoxanthin as targets for genetic engineering in Phaeodactylum tricornutum J Appl Phycol, DOI 10.1007/s10811-015-0583-8



G. Sandmann (2003) Combinatorial biosynthesis of novel carotenoids in Escherichia coli. In: Methods in Molecular Biology Vol. 205, E. coli Gene Expression Protocols (P.E. Vaillantcourt, Ed.), pp. 303-314, Humana Press, Totowa, N.J.

Visser H, Sandmann G, Verdoes JC (2005) Xantophylls in fungi: metabolic engineering of the astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway in Xantophyllomyces denrorhous. In: Barredo J (ed) Methods in biotechnology. Microbial Processes and Products. Totowa, NJ, USA, pp 257-272.

Sandmann G, Yukawa H (2005) Vitamin synthesis: Carotenoids, biotin and pantothenate. In Eggeling J, Bott M (eds) Handbook of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Taylor & FrancisBoca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 397-415.

Sandmann, G, Römer S & Fraser PD (2006) Understanding carotenoid metabolism as a necessity for genetic engineering of crop plants. Metabolic Engin. 8, 291-302.

Sandmann, G. (2009) Evolution of carotene desaturation: The complication of a simple pathway. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 483 169–174.

Schmidt I, Schewe H, Gassel S, Jin C, Buckingham J, Hümbelin M, Sandmann G, Schrader J. (2010) Biotechnological production of astaxanthin with Phaffia rhodozyma/Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol.89, 555-571

Gemma Farre, Shaista Naqvi, Georgina Sanahuja, Chao Bai, Uxue Zorrilla-López, Sol M. Rivera, Ramon Canela, Gerhard Sandman, Richard M. Twyman, Teresa Capell, Changfu Zhu, and Paul Christou (2012) Combinatorial Genetic Transformation of Cereals and the Creation of Metabolic Libraries for the Carotenoid Pathway In Transgenic Plants Methods and Protocols. Series: Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 847. Dunwell, Jim M.; Wetten, Andy C. (Eds.) 2nd ed. Springer, Berlin.

Sandmann, G (2014) Carotenoids of biotechnological importance. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014, pp. 449-467.


Before 2003


G. Sandmann & P. Böger: Mode of action of bleaching herbicides. In: Biochemical Responses Induced by Herbicides (D.E. Moreland, ed.), ACS Symposium Series, no. 181, pp. 113-130, Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington (1982).

G. Sandmann & P. Böger: The enzymological function of heavy metals and their role in electron transfer processes of plants. In: Inorganic Plant Nutrition (A. Läuchli & R.K. Bielesky, eds.), pp. 563-596, Springer Publ. (1983).

G. Sandmann, S. Scherer & P. Böger: General aspects of location and interaction of respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport in blue-green algae. In: Compartments inAlgal Cells and their Interaction (W. Wiessner, D. Robinson & R.C. Starr, eds.), pp. 207-217, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg (1984).

G. Sandmann. Photosynthetic redox proteins and electron transport in iron an copper depleted cells. In: Advances in Photosynthetic Research, Vol. 1, Sybesma C., Eds., Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publ., The Hague, 513-516 (1984).

G. Sandmann & P. Böger: Herbizidwirkungen im Chloroplasten. In: Wirkstoffe im Zellgeschehen (P. Böger, ed.), pp. 139-169, Universitätsverlag Konstanz (1985).

G. Sandmann & P. Böger: Sites of herbicide inhibition of the photosynthetic apparatus. In: Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series, Vol. 19, Photosynthesis III (L.A. Staehlin & C.J. Arntzen, eds.), pp. 595-602, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg (1986).

W. Hilgenberg, P.V. Burke & G. Sandmann: Metabolic pathways. In: Phycomyces Monograph (E. Cerdá-Olmedo & E. Lipson, eds.), pp. 155-198, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York (1987).

K.J. Kunert, G. Sandmann & P. Böger: Modes of action of diphenyl ethers. Rev. Weed Sci. 3, 35-55 (1987).

G. Sandmann & P. Böger: Inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis by herbicides. In: Target Sites of Herbicide Action (P. Böger & G. Sandmann, eds.), pp. 25-44, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA (1989).

P. Böger & G. Sandmann: Modern herbicides affecting typical plant processes. In: Chemistry of Plant Protection (W.S. Bowers, E. Ebing, D. Martin & R. Wegler, eds.), pp. 173-216, Springer Verlag, Berlin (1990).

G. Sandmann & P. Böger: Peroxidizing herbicides: Some aspects on tolerance. In: Managing Resistance to Agrochemicals (M.B. Green, H. LeBaron & W.K. Moberg, eds.), ACS Symposium Series, no. 421, pp. 407-418, Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington (1990).

G. Sandmann, A. Schmidt, H. Linden & P. Böger: Phytoene desaturase, the essential target for bleaching herbicides. Weed Science 39, 474-479 (1991).

G. Sandmann: Biosynthesis of cyclic carotenoids: Biochemistry and molecular genetics of the reaction sequence. Phyisol. Plant. 82, 186-193 (1991).

G. Sandmann: Modo de actuación de los herbicidas en el aparato fotosintético. In: Fijación y Movilización Biológica de Nutrientes, Vol. 1 (J. López Gorgé, ed.), pp. 129-147, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid (1991).

G. Sandmann & P. Böger: Chemical structure and activity of herbicidal inihibitors of phytoene desaturase. In: QSAR in the Development of Agricultural Chemicals (W. Draber & T. Fujita, eds.), pp. 357-371, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA (1992).

P. Böger & G. Sandmann: Grundlagenforschung zur Wirkungsweise von Unkrautkontrollmitteln. Pharmazeutische Zeitung 10, 9-14(1992).

S. Kawamura, T. Hamada, R. Sato, Y. Sanemitsu, G. Sandmann & P. Babczinski: Diphenylpyridines, a new class of herbicides. In: Synthesis and Chemistry of Agrochemicals III. (D.R. Baker, J.G. Fenyes & J.J. Steffens, eds.), ACS Symposium Series, no. 504, pp. 103-108, Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington (1992).

P. Böger & G. Sandmann: Pigment biosynthesis and herbicide interaction. Photosynthetica 28, 481-493 (1993).

G. Sandmann: Phytoen Desaturase: Genes, Enzymes and Phylogenetic Aspects. J. Plant. Physiol. 143, 444-447 (1994).

G.Sandmann: Carotenoid biosynthesis in microorganisms and plants. Eur. J. Biochem. 223, 7-24 (1994).

G. Sandmann & P. Böger: Herbicide, In: Schadwirkungen auf Pflanzen (B. Hock & E.F. Elstner, edit.) Spektrum Verlag, Heidelberg pp. 155-174 (1995).

G. Sandmann, N. Misawa & P. Böger: Steps towards genetic engineering of crops resistant against bleaching herbicides. In: Herbicide-resistant crops: Agricultural, ecomomic, environmental, regulatory, and technological aspects (S.O. Duke, edit.), Lewis Publ., Boca Raton, pp. 189-200 (1996).

G. Sandmann & P.Böger: Phytoene desaturase as target for bleaching herbicides. In: Herbicide Activity: Toxicolody, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (R.M. Roe, J.D. Burton & R.J. Kuhr, dits.) IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp. 1-10 (1997).

P. Böger & G. Sandmann: Action of modern herbicides. In: Photosynthesis A Comprehensive Treatise. (A.S. Raghavendra, edit.) Cambridge University Press, pp.337-351 (1998).

G. Sandmann & H. Scheer: Chloroplast pigments: chlorophylls and carotenoids. In: Photosynthesis A Comprehensive Treatise. (A.S. Raghavendra, edit.) Cambridge University Press, pp. 44-57 (1998).

P. Böger & G. Sandmann: Carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor herbicides - mode of action and resistance mechanisms. Pesticide Outlook 9, 29-35 (1998) .

G. Sandmann: Phylogeny of carotenogenic genes and enzymes in cyanobacteria. In: The Phototrophic Porkaryotes (G.A. Pescheck, W. Löffelhardt, G. Schmetterer, eds.) Kluwer Academic , New York, pp. 799-803 (1999).

G. Sandmann, M. Albrecht, G. Schnurr, P. Knörzer & P. Böger: The biotechnological potential and design of novel carotenoids by gene combination in Escherichia coli. Trends Biotechnol. 17, 233-237 (1999).

H. van den Berg, R. Faulks, H. Fernando Granado, J. Hirschberg, B. Olmedilla, G. Sandmann, S. Southon & W. Stahl (2000) The potential for the improvement of carotenoid levels in foods and the likely systemic effects. J. Sci. Food Agric. 80, 880-912.

P. Krubasik & G. Sandmann (2000) Molecular evolution of lycopene cyclases involved in the formation of carotenoids with ionone end groups. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 28, 806-810.

G. Sandmann (2001) Carotenoid biosynthesis and biotechnological application. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 385, 4-12.

G. Sandmann (2001) Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis: strategies, problems and achievements. Trend Plant. Sci. 6, 14-17.

G. Sandmann & N. Misawa (2002) Fungal carotenoids. In: The Mycota X; Industrial Application. (H.D. Osiewacz, ed.) Springer Verlag Berlim, pp. 247-262.

G. Sandmann (2002) Combinatorial biosynthesis of carotenoids in a heterologous host: A powerfull approach for the biosynthesis of novel structures. ChemBioChem 3, 629-635.

G. Sandmann (2002) Molecular evolution of carotenoid biosynthesis from bacteria to plants. Physiol. Plantarum 116, 431-440.

G. Sandmann (2002) Bleaching herbicides: Action mechanism in carotenoid biosynthesis, structural requirements and engineering of resistance. In: Herbicicde Classes in Development. (P. Böger, K. Wakabayashi, K. Hirai, eds.) Springer Verlag, pp. 43-57.


Original publications

Hilgenberg, W. & Sandmann, G. (1977): Light-stimulated carbon dioxide fixation in Phycomyces blakesleeanus Bgff. Exp. Mycol. 1, 265-

Sandmann, G. & Hilgenberg, W. (1978): Pyruvatcarboxylase aus Phycomyces blakesleeanus Bgff. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 90, 415-

Sandmann, G. & Hilgenberg, W. (1978): Phosphoenolpyruvat-carboxylase aus Phycomyces blakesleeanus Bgff. Z. Naturforsch. 33c, 667-

Sandmann, G. & Hilgenberg, W. (1978): Der lichtabhängige Intermediärstoffwechsel von Phycomyces blakesleeanus Bgff. I. Die CO2-Fixierungsreaktion. Biochem. Physiol. Pflanzen 173, 390-

Sandmann, G. & Hilgenberg, W. (1978): Förderung der ß-Carotinbiosynthese durch Licht bei Phycomyces blakesleeanus Bgff. Biochem. Physiol. Pflanzen 172, 401-

Sandmann, G. & Hilgenberg, W. (1979): Der Gehalt an Gallus- und Protokatechusäure in Abhängigkeit vom Entwicklungszustand von Phycomyces blakesleeanus Bgff. Z. Naturforsch. 34c, 747-

Intermediärstoffwechsel von Phycomyces blakesleeanus Bgff. III. Der Einfluss von Asparagin auf die Bildung der Sporangiophoren. Biochem. Physiol. Pflanzen 174, 794-

Sandmann, G., Kunert, K.J. & Böger, P. (1979): Biological systems to assay bleaching herbicides. Z. Naturforsch. 34c, 1044-1

Hilgenberg, W., Sandmann, G. & Hofmann, F. (1980): Der Einfluß von Indol-3-Essigsäure auf das Wachstum von Phycomyces blakesleeanus und deren quantitative Bestimmung im Pilz. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 97, 89-94.

Sandmann, G. & Hilgenberg, W. (1980): The light-dependent intermediary metabolism of Phycomyces blakesleeanus Bgff. II. Formation and degradation of oxalacetic acid. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 96, 203-

Sandmann, G. & Hilgenberg, W. (1980): Carotinbiosynthese und Vorstufenakkumulation unter dem Einfluss von Diphenylamin in Hell- und Dunkelkulturen von Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Biochem. Physiol. Pflanzen 175, 237-

Sandmann, G., Hilgenberg, W. & Böger, P. (1980): Enzymatic preparation of 14C-labeled phytoene, squalene, and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate from 2-14C mevalonic acid. Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 927-

Sandmann, G., Bramley, P.M. & Böger, P. (1980): The inhibitory mode od action of the pyridazinone herbicide norflurazon on a cell-free carotenogenic enzyme system. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 14, 185-

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1980): Physiological factors determining formation of plastocyanin and plastidic cytochrome c-553 in Scenedesmus. Planta 147, 330-

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1980): Copper-induced exchange of plastocyanin and cytochrome c-553 in cultures of Anabaena variabilis and Plectonema boryanum. Plant Sci. Lett. 17, 417-

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1980): Copper deficiency and toxicity in Scenedesmus. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 98, 53-59.

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1980): Copper-mediated lipid peroxidation processes in photosynthetic membranes. Plant Physiol. 66, 797-

Sandmann, G. & Hilgenberg, W. (1981): Effect of gibberellins and abscisic acid on deep dormant Echinocystis lobata seed germination and the endogenous content of both regulators. Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 55, 203-

Sandmann, G., Lambert, R. & Böger, P. (1981): Multifunctional mode of action of substituted nitrodiphenylethers in Scenedesmus cells. Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 633-

Sandmann, G., Kunert, K.J. & Böger, P. (1981): Bleaching activity and chemical constitution of phenylpyridazinones. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 15, 288-

Böger, P., Sandmann, G. & Miller, R. (1981): Herbicide resistance in a mutant of the microalga Bumilleriopsis filiformis. Photosynth. Res. 2, 61-74.

Sandmann, G & Böger, P. (1981): Inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport by amphotericin B. Physiol. Plant. 51, 326-

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P (1981). Plastocyanin and cytochrome c-553, two different electron donors to photosystem I in algae. In: Photosynthesis, Vol. II, Akoyunoglou G., Eds., Balaban Int. Sciences, Philadelphia, 623-

Sandmann, G., Bohner, H., Böhme, H. & Böger, P (1981). The physiology of plastocyanin formation. In: Photosynthesis, Vol. II, Akoyunoglou G., Eds., Balaban Int. Sciences, Philadelphia, 611-621.

Bohner, H., Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1981): Formation of silver plastocyanin in Scenedesmus. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 636, 65-69.

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1981): Influenece of light on plastocyanin formation in the alga Scenedesmus acutus. Photosynth. Res. 2, 281-

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1982): Formation and degradation of photosynthetic membranes by 35S-labeled sulfolipid. Plant Sci. Lett. 24, 347-

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1982): Volatile hydrocarbons from photosynthetic membranes containing different fatty acids. Lipids 17, 35-41.

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1982): Bleaching activity of new 2-phenylpyridazinones: structure-activity relationship. Z. Naturforsch. 37c, 1092-1

Sandmann, G. & Hilgenberg, W. (1982): Biosynthetic pathway of protocatechuic acid in Phycomyces blaklesleeanus. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 105, 379-

Clarke, I.E., Sandmann, G., Bramley, P.M. & Böger, P. (1982): Carotene biosynthesis with isolated photosynthetic membranes. FEBS Lett. 140, 203-

Clarke, I.E., Bramley, P.M., Sandmann, G. & Böger, P (1982). Herbicide action on carotenogenesis in a photosynthetic cell-free system. In: Biochemistry and Metabolism of Plant Lipids, Wintermans J.F.G.M., Kuiper P.J.C., Eds., Elsevier Biomedical Press, 549-554.

Clarke, I.E., de la Concha, A., Murillo, F.J., Sandmann, G., Skone, E.J. & Bramley, P.M. (1983): The effect of diphenylamine on carotenogenesis in Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Phytochemistry 22, 435-

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1983): Peroxidative formation of C3-hydrocarbons from a omega-polyunsaturated fatty acid (16:3omega4) in the alga Bumilleriopsis. Lipids 18, 37-41.

Sandmann, G., Reck, H., Kessler, E. & Böger, P. (1983): Distribution of plastocyanin and soluble plastidic cytochrome c in various classes of algae. Arch. Microbiol. 134, 23-27.

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P (1983). Structure and activity in herbicidal bleaching. In: Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationships. Pesticide Chemistry: Human Welfare and the Environment, Vol. 1, Doyle P., Fujita T., Eds., Pergamon Press, Oxford, 321-

Lambert, R., Sandmann, G. & Böger, P (1983). Mode of action of nitrodiphenyl ethers affecting pigments and membrane integrity. In: Mode of Action, Metabolism and Toxicology. Pesticide Chemistry: Human Welfare and the Environment, Vol. 3, Miyamoto J., Kearny P.C., Eds., Pergamon Press, Oxford, 97-

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1983): Comparison and bleaching activity of norflurazon and oxyfluorfen. Weed Sci. 31, 338-341.

Lambert, R., Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1983): Correlation between structure and phytotoxic activities of nitrodiphenyl ethers. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 19, 309-

Sandmann, G. & Malkin, R. (1983): NADH and NADPH as electron donors to respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport in the blue-green alga, Aphanocapsa. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 725, 221-

Sandmann, G. & Malkin, R. (1983): NADH and NADPH dehydrogenase from the blue-green alga, Aphanocapsa. Arch. Microbiol. 136, 49-53.

Sandmann, G. & Malkin, R. (1983): Iron-sulfur centers and activities of the photosynthetic electron transport chain in iron-deficient cultures of the blue-green alg Aphanocapsa. Plant Physiol. 73, 724-

Böger, P., Kunert, K.J. & Sandmann, G. (1983): Phytotoxische Wirkstoffe. Arbeitsberichte Ökologie/Umwelttechnik 7, 21-28.

Sandmann, G., Clarke, I.E., Bramley, P.M. & Böger, P. (1984): Inhibition of phytoene desaturase - the mode of action of certain bleaching herbicides. Z. Naturforsch. 39c, 443-

Bramley, P.M., Clarke, I.E., Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1984): Inhibition of carotene biosynthesis in cell extracts of Phycomyces blakesleeanus.  Z. Naturforsch. 39c, 460-

Sandmann, G., Reck, H. & Böger, P. (1984): Herbicidal mode of action on chlorophyll formation. J. Agr. Food Chem. 32, 868-

Sandmann, G. & Malkin, R. (1984): Light inhibition of respiration is due to a dual function of the cytochrome b6/f complex and the plastocyanin/cytochrome c-553 pool in Aphanocapsa. Arch. Biochem. Biophys 234, 105-

Clarke, I.E., Sandmann, G., Bramley, P.M. & Böger, P. (1985): Inhibition of cell-free phytoene desaturation. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 23, 335-

Sandmann, G., Bramley, P.M. & Böger, P. (1985): New herbicidal inhibitors of carotene bioynthesis. J. Pestic. Sci. 10, 19-24.

Sandmann, G. (1985): Consequences of iron deficiency on photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport in blue-green algae. Photosynth. Res. 6, 261-

Sandmann, G. & Bramley, P.M. (1985): Carotenoid biosynthesis by Aphanocapsa homogenates coupled to phytoene-generating system from Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Planta 164, 259-

Bramley, P.M. & Sandmann, G. (1985): In vitro and in vivo biosynthesis of xanthophylls by the cyanobacterium Aphanocapsa. Phytochemistry 24, 2919-2

Sandmann, G. & Bramley, P.M. (1985): The in vitro biosynthesis of beta-cryptoxanthin and related xanthophylls with Aphanocapsa membranes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 843, 73-77.

Sandmann, G. (1985): Photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport in Cu-deficient Dunaliella. Physiol. Plant. 65, 481-

Bramley, P.M., Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1986): The use of a cell-free preparation of Aphanocapsa in studies on bleaching herbicides. Asp. Appl. Biol. 11, 77-84.

Sandmann, G. (1986): Formation of plastocyanin and cytochrome c-553 in different species of blue-green algae. Arch. Microbiol. 145, 76-79.

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1986): Interference of dimethazone with formation of terpenoid compounds. Z. Naturforsch. 41c, 729-

Wakabayashi, K., Mutsuya, K., Teraoka, T., Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1986): Effect of imide herbicides on chlorophyll formation in higher plants. J. Pestic. Sci. 11, 635-

Sandmann, G. (1987): Steady-state kinetics of the photosystem I reaction in chloroplasts of Dunaliella which contains variable concentrations of plastocyanin. Photosynth. Res. 11, 37-44.

Bramley, P.M. & Sandmann, G. (1987): Solubilization of carotenogenic enzymes of Aphanocapsa. Phytochemistry 26, 1935-1

Lambert, R., Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1987): Binding and peroxidative action of oxyfluorfen in sensitive and tolerant algal species. Z. Naturforsch. 42c, 819-

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1987): Interconversion of prenyl pyrophosphates and subsequent reactions in the presence of FMC 57Z. Naturforsch. 42c, 803-

Sandmann, G (1987): Structure and activity of herbicidal inhibitors of phytoene desaturase. In: Pesticide Science and Biotechnology, Greenhalgh R., Roberts T.R., Eds., Blackwell Publ., Oxford, 43-48.

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1987): Herbicides affecting plant pigments. Proc. Brit. Crop Prot. Conference , 149-

Teraoka, T., Sandmann, G., Böger, P. & Wakabayashi, K. (1987): Effect of cyclic imide herbicides on pigment formation in plants. J. Pestic. Sci. 12, 499-

Baron Ayala, M. & Sandmann, G. (1988): Activities of Cu-containing proteins in Cu-depleted pea leaves. Physiol. Plant 72, 801-

Sandmann, G (1988). In vitro carotenoid biosynthesis in Aphanocapsa. In: Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 167, 329-

Baron, M. & Sandmann, G. (1988): The role of Cu in respiration of pea plants and heterotrophically growing Scenedesmus cells. Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 33-37.

Fillat, M.F., Sandmann, G. & Gomez-Moreno, C. (1988): Flavodoxin from the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC7Arch. Microbiol. 150, 160-

Wakabayashi, K., Sandmann, G., Ohta, H. & Böger, P. (1988): Effect of peroxidizing herbicides: comparison of dark and light effects. J. Pestic. Sci. 13, 461-

Ernst, S. & Sandmann, G. (1988): Poly-cis carotene pathway in the Scenedesmus mutant C-6D. Arch. Microbiol. 150, 590-

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1988): Accumulation of protoporphyrin IX in the presence of peroxidizing herbicides. Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 699-

Sandmann, G. & Gamez Gonzales, H. (1989): Peroxidative processes induced in bean leaves by fumigation with sulfur dioxide. Environm. Pollut. 56, 145-

Sandmann, G., Schmidt, A., Linden, H., Hirschberg, J. & Böger, P (1989). Phytoene desaturase, a target for herbicidal inhibitors. In: Biological Role of Plant Lipids, Biacs P.A., Gruz K., Kremmer T., Eds., Plenum Publ., New York, 283-

Nicolaus, B., Sandmann, G., Watanabe, H., Wakabayashi, K. & Böger, P. (1989): Herbicide-induced peroxidation: influence of light and diuron on protoporphyrin IX formation. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 35, 192-

Sandmann, G. & Kowalczyk, S. (1989): In vitro carotenogenesis and characterization of the phytoene desaturase reaction in Anacystis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 163, 916-

Sandmann, G., Linden, H. & Böger, P. (1989): Enzyme-kinetic studies on the interaction of norflurazon with phytoene desaturase. Z. Naturforsch. 44c, 787-

Schmidt, A., Sandmann, G., Armstrong, G.A., Hearst, J.E. & Böger, P. (1989): Immunological detection of phytoene desaturase in algae and higher plants using an antiserum raised against a bacterial fusion-gene construct. Eur. J. Biochem. 184, 375-

Sandmann, G. & Albrecht, M. (1990): Accumulation of colorless carotenes and derivatives during interaction of bleaching herbicides with phytoene desaturase. Z. Naturforsch. 45c, 487-

Sandmann, G., Nicolaus, B. & Böger, P. (1990): Typical peroxidation parameters verified with mung-bean seedlings, soybean cells, and duckweed. Z. Naturforsch. 45c, 512-

Armstrong, G.A., Schmidt, A., Sandmann, G. & Hearst, J.E. (1990): Genetic and biochemical characterization of carotenoid biosynthesis mutants in Rhodobacter capsulatus. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 8329-8

Baron, M., Lachica, M., Chueca, A. & Sandmann, G (1990). The role of copper in the structural organization of photosystem II membranes. In: Current Research in Photosynthesis, Vol. 1, Baltscheffsky M., Eds., Kluver Academic Publ., Dordrecht, 303-

Linden, H., Sandmann, G., Chamovitz, D., Hirschberg, J. & Böger, P. (1990): Biochemcial characterization of Synechococcus mutants selected against the bleaching herbicide norflurazon. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 36, 46-51.

Chamovitz, D., Pecker, I., Sandmann, G., Böger, P. & Hirschberg, J. (1990): Cloning a gene coding for norflurazon resistance in cyanobacteria. Z. Naturforsch. 45c, 482-

Schmidt, A. & Sandmann, G. (1990): Cloning an nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding phytoene dehydrogenase from Aphanocapsa PCC6Gene 91, 3597-3

Schmidt, A. & Sandmann, G. (1990): In vitro characterization of two different mutants of Phycomyces blakesleeanus with impaired phytoene desaturation. J. Bacteriol. 172, 4103-4

Sandmann, G., Woods, W.S. & Tuveson, R.W. (1990): Identification of carotenoids in Erwinia herbicola and in a transformed Escherichia coli strain. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 71, 77-82.

Sandmann, G., Ward, C.E., Lo, W.C., Nagy, J.O. & Böger, P. (1990): The bleaching herbicide flurtamone interferes with phytoene desaturase. Plant Physiol. 94, 476-

Babczinski, P., Blunk, M., Sandmann, G., Schmidt, R.R., Shiokawa, K. & Yasudi, K. (1990): Substituted tetrahydropyrimidinones. A new class of compounds inducing chlorosis by inhibition of phytoene desaturation. Pestic. Sci. 30, 339-

Serrano, A., Gimenez, P., Schmidt, A. & Sandmann, G. (1990): Immunocytochemical localization and functional determination of phytoene desaturase in photoautotrophic prokaryotes. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136, 2465-2

Sandmann, G., Kumita, I. & Böger, P. (1990): Untypical inhibition of phytoene desaturation by 2-(4-chloro-2-nitrobenzoyl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione. Pestic. Sci. 30, 353-

Sandmann, G., Peleato, M.L., Fillat, M.F., Lazaro, M.C. & Gomez Moreno, C. (1990): Consequences of the iron-dependent formation of ferredoxin and flavodoxin on photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation in Anabaena strains. Photosynth. Res. 26, 119-

Chollet, R., Sandmann, G., Diethelm, R., Felix, H., Milzner, K. & Böger, P. (1990): zeta-Carotene accumulation and bleaching by new pyrimidine compounds. Pestic. Sci. 30, 326-

Schnurr, G., Schmidt, A. & Sandmann, G. (1991): Mapping of a carotenogenic gene cluster from Erwinia herbicola and functional identification of its six genes. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 78, 157-

Albrecht, M., Sandmann, G., Musker, D. & Britton, G. (1991): Identification of epoxy- and hydroxyphytoene from norflurazon-treated Scenedesmus. J. Agric. Food Chem. 39, 566-

Sandmann, G. (1991): Light-dependent switch from formation of poly-cis carotenes to all-trans carotenoids in the Scenedesmus mutant C-6D. Arch. Microbiol. 155, 229-233.

Linden, H., Misawa, N., Chamovitz, D., Pecker, I., Hirschberg, J. & Sandmann, G. (1991): Functional complementation in Escherichia coli of different phytoene desaturase genes and analysis of accumulated carotenes. Z. Naturforsch. 46c, 160-

Kowalczyk-Schröder, S. & Sandmann, G. (1992): Interference of fluridone with the desaturation of phytoene in membranes of the cyanobacterium Aphanocapsa. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 42, 7-12.

Sandmann, G., Kowalczyk-Schröder, S., Taylor & H.M., Böger P. (1992): Quantitative structure-activity relationship of fluridone derivatives with phytoene desaturase. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 42, 1-6.

Sandmann, G. & Misawa, N. (1992): New functional assignment of the carotenogenic genes crtB and crtE with constructs of these genes from Erwinia species. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 90, 253-

Chamovitz, D., Misawa, N., Sandmann, G. & Hirschberg, J. (1992): Molecular cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of cyanobacterial gene coding for phytoene synthase, a carotenoid biosynthetic enzyme. FEBS Lett. 296, 305-310.

Kowalczyk-Schröder, S. & Sandmann, G. (1992): Interference of fluridone with the desaturation of phytoene in membranes of the cyanobacterium Aphanocapsa. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol 42, 7-12.

Baron Ayala, M., Lopez Gorge, J., Lachia, M. & Sandmann, G. (1992): Changes in carotenoids and fatty acids in photosystem II of Cu-deficient pea plants. Physiol. Plant. 84, 1-5.

Ernst, A., Sandmann, G., Postius, C., Brass, S., Kenter, U. & Böger, P. (1992): Cyanobacterial picoplankton from Lake Constance. II. Classification of isolates by cell morphology and pigment composition. Bot. Acta 105, 161-

Watanabe, H., Ohori, Y., Sandmann, G., Wakabayashi, K. & Böger, P. (1992): Quantitative correlation between short-term accumulation of  protoporphyrin IX and peroxidative activity of cyclic amides. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 42, 99-

Pecker, I., Chamovitz, D., Linden, H., Sandmann, G. & Hirschberg, J. (1992): A single polypeptide catalyzing the conversion of phytoene to zeta-carotene is transcriptionally regulated during tomato fruit ripening. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 4962-4

Fraser, P.D. & Sandmann, G. (1992): In vitro assays of three carotenogenic membrane-bound enzymes from Escherichia coli transformed with different crt genes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun 185, 9-15.

Fraser, P.D., Misawa, N., Linden, H., Yamano, S., Kobayashi, K. & Sandmann, G. (1992): Expression in Escherichia coli, purification and reactivation of the recombinant Erwinia uredovora phytoene desaturase. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 19891-19

Babczinski, P., Heinemann, U., Sandmann, G., Kawamura, S., Hamada, T., Sato, R. & Sanemitsu, Y. (1992): Inhibition on carotenoid biosynthesis by interaction of 2,6-diphenyl-pyridine derivatives with phytoene desaturation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 2497-2

Arellano, J.B., Baron, M., Schröder, W., Sandmann, G., Chueca, A. & Lopez Gorge, J. (1992). The ambiguous role of copper in photosystem II. In: Research in Photosynthesis, Vol. II, Murata N., Eds., Kluver Academic Publ., Amsterdam, 105-

Sandmann, G., Fraser, P.D. & Linden, H. (1992). Diversity of phytoene desaturating enzymes and corresponding gene involved in carotenoid biosynthesis of autotrophic prokaryotes. In: Research in Photosynthesis, Vol. III, Murata N., Eds., Kluver Academic Publ., Amsterdam, 51-54.

Pecker, I., Chamovitz, D., Mann, V., Sandmann, G., Böger, P. & Hirschberg, J. (1992). Molecular characterization of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants: The phytoene desaturase gene in plants. In: Research in Photosynthesis, Vol. III, Murata N., Eds., Kluver Academic Publ., Amsterdam, 11-18.

Sandmann, G., Kuhn, M. & Böger, P. (1993): Carotenoids in photosynthesis: Protection of D1 degradation in the light. Photosynth. Res. 35, 185-

Fraser, P.D., Linden, H. & Sandmann, G. (1993): Purification and reactivation of recombinant Synechococcus phytoene desaturase from an overexpressing strain of E. coli. Biochem. J. 291, 687-

Sandmann, G., Misawa, N., Wiedemann, W., Vittorioso, P., Carattoli, A., Morelli, G. & Macino, G. (1993): Functional identification of al-3 from Neurospora crassa as the gene for geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase by complementation with crt genes, in vitro characterization of the gene product, and mutant analysis. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 18, 245-

Linden, H., Vioque, A. & Sandmann, G. (1993): Isolation of a carotenoid biosynthesis gene coding for a zeta-carotene desaturase from Anabaena PCC7120 by heterologous complementation. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 106, 99-

Overmann, J., Sandmann, G., Hall, K.J. & Northcote, T.G. (1993): Fossil carotenoids and paleolimnology of meromictic Mohoney Lake, Britisch Columbia, Canada. Aquatic Sciences 55, 31-39.

Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1993): Structure-activity correlation of substituted 3-(2H)furanones chemically related to the bleaching herbicide flurtamone. Z. Naturforsch. 48c, 312-

Sandmann, G. (1993). Spectral determination of carotenoid precursors in Scenedesmus cells treated with bleaching herbicides. In: Target Assays for Modern Herbicides and Related Phytotoxic Compounds, Böger P., Sandmann G., Eds., Lewis Publ., Boca Raton, FL, 3-8.

Sandmann, G. (1993). Detection of bleaching benzoyl cyclohexanediones in cress seedlings by HPLC separation and determination of carotenoids. In: Target Assays for Modern Herbicides and Related Phytotoxic Compounds, Böger P., Sandmann G., Eds., Lewis Publ., Boca Raton, FL, 9-13.

Sandmann, G. (1993). In vitro assay system for phytoene desaturase inhibitors with isolated thylakoids. In: Target Assays for Modern Herbicides and Related Phytotoxic Compounds, Böger P., Sandmann G., Eds., Lewis Publ., Boca Raton, FL, 15-20.

Nicolaus, B., Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1993): Molecular aspects of herbicide action on protoporphyrinogen oxidase. Z. Naturforsch. 48c, 326-

Nicolaus, B., Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1993). Inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase from maize. In: Target Assays for Modern Herbicides and Related Phytotoxic Compounds, Böger P., Sandmann G., Eds., Lewis Publ., Boca Raton, FL, 35-41.

Watanabe, H., Sandmann, G., Wakabayashi, K. & Böger, P. (1993). Short-term formation of protoporphyrin IX in Scenedesmususing cyclic imide analogues. In: Target Assays for Modern Herbicides and Related Phytotoxic Compounds, Böger P., Sandmann G, Eds., Lewis Publ., Boca Rato, FL, 43-49.

Sandmann, G. (1993): Photoregulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in mutants of Neurospora crassa: Activities of enzymes involved in the synthesis and conversion of phytoene. Z. Naturforsch. 48c, 470-

Sandmann, G. (1993). Carotenoid analysis in mutants from Escherichia coli transformed with carotenogenic gene cluster and Scenedesmus obliquus mutant C-6D. In: Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 214, 341-

Linden, H., Lucas, M.M., de Felipe, M.R. & Sandmann, G. (1993): Immunogold localization of phytoene desaturase in higher plant chloroplasts. Physiol. Plant. 88, 229-

Tuveson, R.W. & Sandmann, G. (1993). Protection by cloned carotenoid genes expressed in Escherichia coli against phototoxic molecules activated by near-ultraviolet light. In: Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 214, 323-

Sandmann, G. & Fraser, P.D. (1993): Differential inhibition of phytoene desaturase from diverse origins and analysis of resistant cyanobacterial mutants. Z. Naturforsch. 48c, 307-

Wiedemann, M., Misawa, N. & Sandmann, G. (1993): Purification and enzymatic characterization of the geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase from Erwinia uredovora after expression in Escherichia coli. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 306, 152-

Fraser, P.D., Albrecht, M. & Sandmann, G. (1993): Development of high-performance liquid chromatographic systems for the separation of radiolabelled carotenes and precursors formed in specific enzymatic reactions. J. Chromatogr. 645, 265-

Chamovitz, D., Sandmann, G. & Hirschberg, J. (1993): Molecular and biochemical characterization of herbicide-resistant mutants of cyanobacteria reveals that phytoene desaturation is a rate-limiting step in carotenoid biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 268, 17348-17

Misawa, N., Yamano, S., Linden, H., de Felipe, M. R., Lucas, M., Ikenaga, H. & Sandmann, G. (1993): Functional expression of the Erwinia uredovora carotenoid biosynthesis gene crtI in transgenic plants showing an increase of ß-carotene biosynthesis activity and resistance to the bleaching herbicide norflurazon. The Plant J. 4, 833-840.

Windhövel, U., Geiges, B., Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1994): Expression of Erwinia uredovora phytoene desaturase in Synechococcus PCC7942 leading to resistance against a bleaching herbicide. Plant Physiol. 1O4, 119-125.

Linden, H., Misawa, N., Saito, T. & Sandmann, G. (1994): A novel carotenoid biosyntheses gene coding for z-carotene desaturase: functional expression, sequence and phylogenetic origin. Plant Mol. Biol. 24, 369-379.

Martinez-Ferez, I., Fernandez-Gonzalez, B., Sandmann, G., Vioque, A. (1994): Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene coding for phytoene synthase from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC68O3. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1218, 145-152.

Arellano, J. B., Schröder, W., P., Sandmann, G. Chueca, A. & Baron, M. (1994): Removal of nuclear contaminants and of non-specifically photosystem II-bound copper from photosystem II preparations. Physiol. Plant. 91, 369-

Martinez-Ferez, I., Vioque, A. & Sandmann, G. (1994) : Mutagenesis of an amino acid responsible in phytoene desaturase from Synechocystis for binding of the bleaching herbicide norflurazon. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 48, 185-190.

Sandmann, G. &  Albrecht, M. (1994): Assays for three enzymes involved in mevalonic acid metabolism. Physiol. Plant. 92, 297-301.

Misawa, N., Truesdale, M.R., Sandmann, G., Fraser, P.D., Bird, C., Schuch, W. & Bramley, P.M. (1994): Expression of a tomato cDNA coding for phytoene synthase in Escherichia coli, phytoene formation in vivo and in vitro, and functional analysis of the various truncated gene products. J. Biochem. 116, 980-985.

Misawa, N., Masamoto, K., Hori, T., Ohtani, T., Böger, P. & Sandmann, G. (1994). Expression of an Erwinia phytoene desaturase gene not only confers multiple resistance to herbicides interfering with carotenoid biosynthesis but also alters xanthophyll metabolism in transgenic plants. Plant J. 6, 481-489.

Albrecht M. & Sandmann G. (1994) Light-stimulated carotenoid biosynthesis during transformation of maize etioplasts is regulated by increased activity of isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase. Plant Physiol. 105, 529-534.

Albrecht M. & Sandmann G. (1995) Origin of hydroxyphytoene derivatives formed in the presence of bleaching herbicides. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43, 1701-1704.

Babczinski P., Sandmann G., Schmidt R.R., Shiokawa K. & Yasui K. (1995) Substituted tetrahydropyrimidinones: A new class of compounds inducing chlorosis by inhibition of phytoene desaturase. 1. Biochemical and biological results. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 52, 33-44.

Babczinski P., Blunk M., Sandmann G., Shiokawa K. & Yasui K. (1995) Substituted tetrahydropyrimidinones: A new herbicidal class of compounds inducing chlorosis by inhibition of phytoene desaturation. 2. Structure-activity relationships. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 52, 45-59.

Yokoyama A. , Sandmann G., Hoshino T., Adachi K., Sakai M. & Shizuri Y. (1995) Thermozeaxanthins, new carotenoid-glycoside esters from thermophilic eubacterium Thermus thermophilus. Tetrahedron Lett. 36, 4901-4904.

Navarro E., Sandmann G. & Torres-Martinez S. (1995) Mutants of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of Mucor circinelloides. Experim. Mycology 19, 186-190.

Albrecht M., Klein A., Hugueney P., Sandmann G. & Kuntz M. (1995) Molecular cloning and functional expression in E. coli of a novel plant enzyme mediating zeta-carotene desaturation. FEBS Lett. 372, 199-202.

Albrecht, M., Linden, H. & Sandmann, G. (1996) Biochemical characterization of purified z-carotene desaturase from Anabaena PCC 7120 after expression in Escherichia coli. Eur. J. Biochem. 236, 115-120.

Schnurr, G., Misawa, N. & Sandmann, G. (1996) Expression, purification and properties of lycopene cyclase from Erwinia uredovora. Biochem. J. 315, 869-874.

Raisig, A., Bartley, G., Scolnik, P. & Sandmann, G. (1996) Purification in an active state and properties of the 3-step phytoene desaturase from Rhodobacter capsulatus after overexpression in Escherichia coli. J. Biochem. 119, 559-564.

Yokoyama, A., Shizuri, Y., Hoshino, T. & Sandmann G. (1996) Thermocryptoxanthins: novel intermediates in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of Thermus thermophilus. Arch. Microbiol. 165, 342-345.

Breitenbach, J., Misawa, N., Kajiwara, S. & Sandmann, G. (1996) Expression in Escherichia coli and properties of the carotene ketolase from Haematococcus pluvialis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 140, 241-246.

Sandmann, G., Schneider, C. & Böger, P. (1996) A new non-radioactive assay of phytoene desaturase to evaluate bleaching herbicides. Z. Naturforsch 51C, 534-538.

Schuhmann, G., Nürnberger, H., Sandmann, G. & Krügel, H. (1996) Activation and analysis of cryptic crt genes for carotenoid biosynthesis from Streptomyces griseus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 252, 658-666.

Takaichi, S., Sandmann, G., Schnurr, G., Satomi, Y., Suzuki, A. & Misawa, N. (1996) The carotenoid 7,8-dihydro-psi-end group can be cyclized by lycopene cyclase from the bacterium Erwinia uredovora and the higher plant Capsicum annuum. Eur. J. Biochem. 241, 291-296.

Barbato, C., Calissano, M., Pickford, A., Romano, N., Sandmann, G. & Macino, G. (1996) Mild RIP - An alternative method for in vivo mutagenesis of the albino-3 gene in Neurospora. Molec. Gen. Genet. 252, 353-361.

Sandmann, G., Bishop, N.I. & Senger, H. (1997) The carotenoid-deficient mutant, C-6E, of Scenedesmus obliquuus is blocked at the site of phytoene synthase. Physiol. Plant. 99, 391-394.

Ruiz-Hidalgo, M.R., Benito, E.P., Sandmann, G. & Eslava A.P. (1997) The phytoene dehydrogenase gene of Phycomyces: regulation of its expression by blue light and vitamin A. Molec. Gen. Gent. 253, 734-744.

Fernandez-Gonzalez, B., Sandmann, G. & Vioque, A (1997) A new type of asymmetrically acting ß-carotene ketolase is required for the synthesis of echinenone in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6J. Biol. Chem. 272, 9728-9733.

Windhövel, U., Sandmann, G. & Böger, P. (1997) Genetic engineering of resistance to bleaching herbicides affecting phytoene desaturase and lycopene cyclase in cyanobacterial carotenogenesis. Pest. Biochem Physiol. 57, 68-78.

Ruther, A., Misawa, N., Böger, P. & Sandmann, G. (1997) Production of zeaxanthin in Escherichia coli transformed with different carotenogenic plasmids. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 48, 162-167.

Schneider, C., Böger, P. & Sandmann G. (1997) Phytoene desaturase: Heterologous expression in an active state, purification, and biochemical properties. Protein Expr. Purif. 10, 175-179.

Sandmann, G. (1997) High level expression of carotenogenic genes for enzyme purification and biochemical characterization. Pure Appl. Chem. 69, 2163-2168.

Albrecht, M., Ruther, A. & Sandmann, G. (1997) Purification and biochemical characterization of a hydroxyneursporene desaturase involved in the biosynthetic pathway of the carotenoid spheroidene in Rhodobacter spheroides. J. Bacteriol. 179, 7462-7467.

Albrecht, M., Takaichi, S., Misawa, N., Schnurr, G., Böger, P.& Sandmann, G. (1997) Synthesis of atypical cyclic and acyclic hydroxy carotenoids in Escherichia coli transformants. J. Biotechnol. 58, 177-185.

Breitenbach, J., Fernandez-Gonzales, B., Vioque, A. & Sandmann, G. (1998) A higher-plant type z-carotene desaturase in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6Plant Molec. Biol. 36, 725-732.

Schnurr, G., Böger, P. & Sandmann, G: (1998) Interaction of 2-(4-methylphenoxy)-triethylamine and related compounds with its herbicide target in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. J. Pest. Sci. 23, 113-117.

Neudert, U., Martinez-Ferez, I., Fraser, P.D. & Sandmann, G. (1998) Expression of an active phytoene synthase from Erwinia uredovora and biochemical properties of the enzyme. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1392, 51-58.

Sandmann, G., Kuhn, S. & Böger, P. (1998) Evaluation of structurally different carotenoids in Escherichia coli transformants as protectants against UV-B radiation. Appl. Environm. Microbiol. 64, 1972-1974.

Fraser, P.D., Misawa, N., Sandmann, G., Johnson, J., Schuch, W. & Bramley, P.M. (1998) Production and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies to phytoene synthase of Lycopersicon esculentum. Phytochem. 49, 971-978.

Carol, P., Stevenson, D., Bisanza, C., Breitenbach, J., Sandmann, G., Mache, R., Coupland, G. & Kuntz, M. (1999) Mutations in the Arabidopsis gene IMMUTANS cause a variegated phenotype by inactivating a chloroplast terminal oxidase associated with phytoene desaturation. The Plant Cell 11, 57-68.

Götz, T., Windhövel, U., Böger, P. & Sandmann, G. (1999) Protection of photosynthesis against UV-B radiation by carotenoids in transformants of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7Plant Physiol. 120, 599-

174 Verdoes, J., Krubasik, P., Sandmann, G. & van Ooyen, M. (1999) Isolation and functional characterisation of a novel type of carotenoid biosynthetic gene from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhus. Molec. Gen. Genet. 262, 453-461.

175 Krügel, H., Krubasik, P., Weber, K., Saluz, H.P. & Sandmann, G. (1999) Functional analysis of genes from Streptomyces griseus involved in the synthesis of isorenieratene, a carotenoid with aromatic end groups, revealed a novel type of carotenoid desaturase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1439, 57-64.

Steiger, S., Schäfer, L. & Sandmann, G. (1999) High-light upregulation of carotenoids and their antioxidative properties in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 521, 14-18.

Breitenbach, J., Kuntz, M., Takaichi, S. & Sandmann, G. (1999) Catalytic properties of an expressed and purified higher plant type z-carotene desaturase from Capsicum annuum. Eur. J. Biochem. 265, 376-383.

Raisig, A. & Sandmann, G. (1999) Catalytic properties of an enzyme from the C-30 carotenoid pathway of Staphylococcus aureaus. J. Bacteriol. 181, 6184-6187.

Albrecht, M., Misawa, N. & Sandmann, G. (1999) Metabolic engineering of the terpenoid biosynthetic pathway of Escherichia coli for production of the carotenoids ß-carotene and zeaxanthin. Biotechn. Lett. 21, 791-795.

Krubasik, P. & Sandmann, G. (2000) A carotenogenic gene cluster from Brevibacterium linens with novel lycopene cyclase genes involved in the synthesis of aromatic carotenoids. Molec. Gen.Genet. 263, 423-432.

Steiger, S., Astier, C. & Sandmann, G. (2000) Substrate specificity of the expressed 3,4-carotenoid desaturase from Rubrivivax gelatinosus reveals the detailed reaction sequence to spheroidene and spirilloxanthin. Biochem. J. 349, 635-640.

Viveiros, M., Krubasik, P., Sandmann, G. & Houssaini-Iraqui, M. (2000) Structural and functional analysis of the gene cluster encoding carotenoid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium aurum A+. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 187, 95-101.

Hausmann, A. & Sandmann G. (2000) A single 5-step desaturase is involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway to ß-carotene and torulene in Neurospora crassa. Fung. Gen. Biol. 30, 147-153.

Albrecht, M., Takaichi, S., Steiger, S., Wang, Z.-Y. & Sandmann, G. (2000) Novel hydroxycarotenoids with improved antioxidative properties produced by gene combination in Escherichia coli. Nature Biotechnol. 18, 843-846.

Simkin, A. J., Breitenbach, J., Kuntz, M. & Sandmann, G. (2000) In vitro and in situ inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis in Capsicum annuum by bleaching herbicides. J. Agric. Food Chem.48, 4676-4680.

Sandmann, G. & Mitchell, G. (2001) In vitro inhibition studies of phytoene desaturase by bleaching ketomorpholine derivatives.J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 138-141.

Ogawa, H., Yamada, I., Arai, K., Hirase, K., Moriyasu, K., Schneider, C., Sandmann, G., Böger, P. & Wakabayashi, K. (2001) Mode of bleaching activity of herbicidal diphenylpyrrolidinones. Pest Managm. Sci. 57, 33-40.

Albrecht, M., Steiger, S. & Sandmann, G. (2001) Expression of a ketolase gene mediates the synthesis of canthaxanthin in Synechococcus leading to resistance against pigment photodegradation and UV-B sensitivity of photosynthesis. Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 551-555.

Sandmann, G. (2001) Bleaching activities of substituted pyrimidines and structure-activity comparison to related heterocyclic derivatives. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 70, 86-91.

Krubasik, P. Takaichi, S., Maoka, T., Kobayashi, M. & Sandmann, G. (2001) Detailed biosynthetic pathway to decaprenoxanthin diglucoside in Brevibacterium flavum and identification of novel intermediates. Arch. Micobiol. 176, 217-223.

Raisig, A. & Sandmann, G. (2001) Functional properties of diapophytoene and related desaturases of C30 and C40 carotenoid biosynthetic pathways. Biochim. Biophys Acta, 1533, 164-170.

Krubasik, P., Kobayashi, M. & Sandmann G. (2001) Expression and functional analysis of a gene cluster involved in the synthesis of decaprenoxanthin reveals the mechanisms for C50 carotenoid formation. Eur. J. Biochem. 268, 3702-3708.

Breitenbach, J., Braun, G., Steiger, S. & Sandmann, G. (2001) Chromatographic performance on a C30-bonded stationary phase of mono hydroxycarotenoids with variable chain length or degree of desaturation and of lycopene isomers synthesized by different carotene desaturases. J. Chromatogr. A 936, 59-69.

Breitenbach, J., Zhu C. & Sandmann, G. (2001) The bleaching herbicide norflurazon inhibits phytoene desaturase by competition with the cofactors J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 5270-5

Breitenbach, J., Vioque, A. & Sandmann, G. (2001) Gene sll0033 from Synechocystis 6803 encodes a carotene isomerase involved in the biosynthesis of all-E lycopene. Z. Naturforsch. 56 C, 915-917.

Zhu, C., Yamamura, S., Koiwa, H., Nishihara, M. & Sandmann, G. (2002) cDNA cloning and expression of carotenogenic genes during flower development in Gentiana lutea. Plant Molec. Biol., 48, 277-285.

Breitenbach, J., Böger, P. & Sandmann, G. (2002) Interaction of bleaching compounds with the target enzyme z-carotene desaturase. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 73, 104-109.

Steiger, S., Takaichi, S. & Sandmann, G. (2002) Heterologous production of two novel acyclic carotenoids, 1,1'-dihydroxy-3,4-didehydrolycopene and 1-hydroxy-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene by combination of the crtC and crtD genes from Rhodobacter and Rubrivivax. J. Biotechnol. 97, 51–58.

Götz, T., Sandmann, G. & Römer, S. (2002) Expression of a bacterial carotene hydroxylase gene (crtZ) enhances UV tolerance in tobacco. Plant Molec. Biol. 50, 127-140

Römer, S., Lübeck, J., Kauder, F., Steiger, S., Adomat, C. &. Sandmann, G. (2002) Genetic engineering of a zeaxanthin-rich potato by antisense inactivation and co-suppression of carotenoid epoxidation, Metabolic Engin. 4, 263-272.