Current Research Projects
Study on „Societal Implications of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)“
On behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH), Thomas Lemke and Jonas Rüppel reviewed the existing research on the societal implications of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). The study identifies the following social issues: 1) the forms and fields of application of PGD have expanded, both for new medical indications and for non-medical purposes, 2) PGD tends to reinforce social inequalities and strengthens existing gender asymmetries in family life and reproductive care, and 3) PGD is contributing to a change of normative expectations promoting the idea of genetic and reproductive responsibility. Furthermore, the study delineates potential consequences of PGD for people living with chronic diseases or disabilities and assesses possible trajectories of the technology in question. The document is available for download here.
Personalized Depression? Investigating the Preconditions, Dynamics and Implications of Psychiatric Biomarker Research
(Prof. Dr. Thomas Lemke, Research Associates: Jonas Rüppel and Laura Schnieder - German Research Foundation, January 2017 to December 2019)
Psychiatric research and clinical practice are currently undergoing a transformation many observers regard as a real paradigm shift. While psychiatric interventions so far were based on the experiences, narratives and behavior of patients, they increasingly rely on biological parameters, so-called biomarkers. According to the vision of a “personalized psychiatry”, biomarkers provide for a better diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of psychiatric diseases as they indicate disease severity or susceptibility to treatment thereby allowing to “tailor” interventions to the specific bodily features and biological characteristics of individuals. Today, a few biomarker-tests are already available while others will enter clinical practice in the foreseeable future.
The proposed research project is the first to sociologically investigate this essential transformation. It starts from the thesis that the new focus on biomarkers not only changes professional practices and the disciplinary boundaries of psychiatry, but will also modify institutional structures and practices and result in new concepts of mental illness and health, psychic and corporal processes. Informed by the research design of situational analysis, the project examines the conditions, dynamics and implications of psychiatric biomarker-research using the example of depression. For this purpose, document and media analysis, expert interviews and ethnographies of psychiatric conferences will provide insights into both the practical contexts and the technical preconditions of biomarker research and the expectations, hopes and fears within the psychiatric arena that go along with the introduction and proliferation of biomarkers for depression. The project contributes to the sociology of psychiatric knowledge by combining an analytics of government following the work of Michel Foucault with insights from Science and Technology Studies. It investigates the historical ontology of depression as a fluid and contested medical classification and seeks to conceptually sharpen the notion of biomarkerization. Beyond the scientific objectives, the research project also provides empirical insights and theoretical reflections highly relevant for the public debate on the societal implications of the vision of a personalized psychiatry.
The Government of Things: Foundations and Perspectives of the New Materialism
(Prof. Dr. Thomas Lemke - Opus Magnum grant from Volkswagen Foundation, April 2015 to September 2016)
In recent years, social sciences and humanities have developed a renewed theoretical interest in matter and materiality. Central to this “new materialism” is the extension of the concepts of agency, self-organization and power to non-human entities, thereby also calling into question conventional understandings of life.
The book aims at systematically discussing and critically evaluating the innovative potential and explanatory perspectives of the new materialism. I will first present the premises and central ideas of this theoretical project and elucidate how it differs from older versions of materialism. The following chapters introduce three main representatives of this research perspective in greater detail, and compare their respective approaches with one another: Bruno Latour’s project of a “thing materialism” in the context of his anthropology of the moderns, Jane Bennett’s vision of a political ecology of things, and Karen Barad’s proposal of an agential realism. The analysis presents central positions and theoretical options in new materialist scholarship, and simultaneously identifies unresolved theoretical tensions and conceptual ambiguities within this research perspective.
The book then explores the theoretical potential and empirical prospects of a “relational materialism” (Annemarie Mol) based on Foucault’s idea of a “government of things”. My thesis is that exploring and elaborating this posthumanist concept of materiality provides the analytical tools for investigating the interrelatedness and entanglements of men and things, the natural and the artificial, the physical and the moral. This theoretical project will also be instrumental in going beyond the anthropocentric limitations of studies of governmentality and paving the way for a more materialist account of politics.
Demographization of the political? An intersectional analysis of German family and migration policies since the 1990s
(Dr. Susanne Schultz, German Research Foundation, June 2014 to May 2017)
This DFG research project examines the increasing importance of demographic knowledge within German family and migration policies since the mid-1990s. The aim is to analyze the scope, elements and dynamics of a new population policy with special attention to the scientific arguments offered for it. The project focuses on the regulation of fertility and immigration as those elements of the new demographic policy which are debated and/or implemented in order to influence actively the size and composition of the national population. By integrating family and migration policies it becomes possible to develop an intersectional perspective on the current biopolitics of the population, without ignoring important differences between these policy fields and the role of demographic knowledge within them. The project employs the concept of demographization as a social studies of science concept which makes it possible to analyze scientific problematizations and strategic political solutions as intertwined elements of political rationalities.
In order to evaluate the scope of this concept for political science purposes, the project combines two different methodological approaches. In the first phase the project uses an inductive approach inspired by interpretative policy analysis. The project maps actors and institutions through time, and analyzes the discourses of demographic policy consultancy since the 1990s: first on the basis of documents from studies conducted within ministries, contract research and consulting think tanks, and second on the basis of qualitative interviews with key actors. The aim of this phase is to identify the range of prevailing demographic rationalities in both policy fields and how they have changed through time. In a second phase the project shifts to a more deductive state-theoretical perspective in order to reconstruct the integration of demographic rationalities within the hegemonic conflict constellations of the two policy fields. The aim is to understand demographization as part of broader processes of hegemony building and to analyze the dynamics, and also the limits, of demographic rationalities within current German politics.
In the last phase the project uses the outcomes of the project in order to debate and to develop approaches to intersectionality within state theory. This phase aims to investigate which demographic concepts and statistical calculations are applied in order to select and categorize certain groups of the population, which strategies of government are debated and implemented with respect to these groups, and how categories of gender, class ethnicity/race/nationality within the two policy fields and across them intersect here.
Carriers: genetic knowledge and the emergence of a new biosocial identity
(Dr. Peter Wehling, German Research Foundation, November 2015 to October 2018)
The research project investigates whether and to what extent a new biosocial identity and category of what are known as heterozygous carriers of recessively inherited genetic conditions is currently emerging from the interplay of genetic knowledge, novel biomedical technologies, scientific and political discourses, and commercial offers of carrier screening. Recently, technological progress in the field of gene and genome analysis has made it possible to test in a single procedure and at low cost for several hundreds of genetic traits associated with recessive conditions (“expanded carrier screening”). Thus this under-investigated form of being a carrier of genetic mutations, which has not so far attracted much attention from sociologists, is becoming increasingly important for discussions in medicine, health policies and bioethics, and also for commercial providers of such expanded screening tests. It now seems likely that unknowingly, and without themselves being at risk of developing symptoms, most humans are heterozygous carriers of an estimated average number of three to six recessively inherited disease mutations, linked with a 50 percent chance of passing these on to their children. Expanded carrier screening therefore targets all couples who wish to have children and offers them, “ideally” even prior to pregnancy (“preconceptionally”), the opportunity to find out whether both of them are carriers of the same recessive mutation associated with a genetic condition. In this case there would be a 25 percent chance for each of their children of inheriting this mutation from both parents. If carrier screening is done prior to pregnancy, couples will have a number of options (ranging from not having children at all to preimplantation genetic diagnosis) to prevent the birth of an affected child. The project aims at analysing how the relatively new figure and identity of the “carrier” is shaped by the ascription of specific risks, hopes, options and responsibilities to carriers in medical, bioethical and health policy discourses as well as in commercial “direct-to-consumer” offers on the internet. In addition, using semi-structured interviews, the project is exploring why and how far individuals and couples might be motivated to acquire knowledge of their recessive genetic traits and to what extent they might understand themselves as “carriers”, leading them to behave according to this self-perception. With these objectives, the project is able to substantially contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the social implications and effects of genetic knowledge and biomedical technologies, to the sociological analysis of practices of knowing and not-knowing, and to the emerging public debates on the potential risks and benefits of an essentially novel form of genetic diagnosis with possibly far-reaching consequences.